from the earliest times to the Roman conquest.



CHAPTER     I  . .  Geography of Greece.

CHAPTER    II  . .  Origin of the Greeks, and the Heroic Age.

CHAPTER   III  . .  General Survey of the Greek People.
                    National Institutions.

CHAPTER    IV  . .  Early History of Peloponnesus and Sparta to
                    the end of the Messenian Wars, B.C. 668.

CHAPTER     V  . .  Early History of Athens down to the
                    Establishment of Democracy by Clisthenes,
                    B.C. 510.

CHAPTER    VI  . .  The Greek Colonies.

CHAPTER   VII  . .  The Persian Wars.--From the Ionic Revolt to
                    the Battle of Marathon, B.C. 500-490.

CHAPTER  VIII  . .  The Persian Wars.--The Battles of Thermopylae
                    Salamis, and Plataea, B.C. 480-479.

CHAPTER    IX  . .  From the end of the Persian Wars to the
                    beginning of the Peloponnesian War,
                    B.C. 479-431.

CHAPTER     X  . .  Athens in the time of Pericles.

CHAPTER    XI  . .  The Peloponnesian War.--First Period, from the
                    commencement of the War to the Peace of Nicias,
                    B.C. 431-421.

CHAPTER   XII  . .  The Peloponnesian War.--Second Period, from
                    the Peace of Nicias to the Defeat of the
                    Athenians in Sicily, B.C. 421-413.

CHAPTER  XIII  . .  The Peloponnesian War.--Third Period, from the
                    Sicilian Expedition to the end of the War,
                    B.C. 413-404.

CHAPTER   XIV  . .  The Thiry Tyrants, and the death of Socrates,
                    B.C. 404-399.

CHAPTER    XV  . .  The Expedition of the Greeks under Cyrus, and
                    Retreat of the Ten Thousand, B.C. 401-400.

CHAPTER   XVI  . .  The Supremacy of Sparta, B.C. 404-371.

CHAPTER  XVII  . .  The Supremacy of Thebes, B.C. 371-361.

CHAPTER XVIII  . .  History of the Sicilian Greeks from the
                    Destruction of the Athenian Armament to the
                    Death of Timoleon.

CHAPTER   XIX  . .  Phillip of Macedon, B.C. 359-336.

CHAPTER    XX  . .  Alexander the Great, B.C. 336-323.

CHAPTER   XXI  . .  From the Death of Alexander the Great to the
                    Conquest of Greece by the Romans, B.C. 323-146.

CHAPTER  XXII  . .  Sketch of the History of Greek Literature
                    from the Earliest Times to the Reign of
                    Alexander the Great.



Greece is the southern portion of a great peninsula of Europe,
washed on three sides by the Mediterranean Sea.  It is bounded on
the north by the Cambunian mountains, which separate it from
Macedonia.  It extends from the fortieth degree of latitude to
the thirty-sixth, its greatest length being not more than 250
English miles, and its greatest breadth only 180.  Its surface is
considerably less than that of Portugal.  This small area was
divided among a number of independent states, many of them
containing a territory of only a few square miles, and none of
them larger than an English county.  But the heroism and genius
of the Greeks have given an interest to the insignificant spot of
earth bearing their name, which the vastest empires have never

The name of Greece was not used by the inhabitants of the
country.  They called their land HELLAS, and themselves HELLENES.
At first the word HELLAS signified only a small district in
Thessaly, from which the Hellenes gradually spread over the whole
country.  The names of GREECE and GREEKS come to us from the
Romans, who gave the name of GRAECIA to the country and of GRAECI
to the inhabitants.

The two northerly provinces of Greece are THESSALY and EPIRUS,
separated from each other by Mount Pindus.  Thessaly is a fertile
plain enclosed by lofty mountains, and drained by the river
Peneus, which finds its way into the sea through the celebrated
Vale of Tempe.  Epirus is covered by rugged ranges of mountains
running from north to south, through which the Achelous the
largest river of Greece, flows towards the Corinthian gulf.

In entering central Greece from Thessaly the road runs along the
coast through the narrow pass of Thermopylae, between the sea and
a lofty range of mountains.  The district along the coast was
inhabited by the EASTERN LOCRIANS, while to their west were DORIS
and PHOCIS, the greater part of the latter being occupied by
Mount Parnassus, the abode of the Muses, upon the slopes of which
lay the town of Delphi with its celebrated oracle of Apollo.
South of Phocis is Boeotia, which is a large hollow basin,
enclosed on every side by mountains, which prevent the waters
from flowing into the sea.  Hence the atmosphere was damp and
thick, to which circumstance the witty Athenians attributed the
dullness of the inhabitants.  Thebes was the chief city of
Boeotia.  South of Boeotia lies ATTICA, which is in the form of a
triangle, having two of its sides washed by the sea and its base
united to the land.  Its soil is light and dry and is better
adapted for the growth of fruit than of corn.  It was
particularly celebrated for its olives, which were regarded as
the gift of Athena (Minerva), and were always under the care of
that goddess.  Athens was on the western coast, between four and
five miles from its port, Piraeus.  West of Attica, towards the
isthmus, is the small district of MEGARIS.

The western half of central Greece consists of WESTERN LOCRIS,
AETOLIA and ACARNANIA.  These districts were less civilised than
the other countries of Greece, and were the haunts of rude robber
tribes even as late as the Peloponnesian war.

Central Greece is connected with the southern peninsula by a
narrow isthmus, on which stood the city of Corinth.  So narrow is
this isthmus that the ancients regarded the peninsula as an
island, and gave to it the name of PELOPONNESUS, or the island of
Pelops, from the mythical hero of this name.  Its modern name,
the MOREA, was bestowed upon it from its resemblance to the leaf
of the mulberry.

The mountains of Peloponnesus have their roots in the centre of
the country, from which they branch out towards the sea.  This
central region, called ARCADIA, is the Switzerland of the
peninsula.  It is surrounded by a ring of mountains, forming a
kind of natural wall, which separates it from the remaining
Peloponnesian states.  The other chief divisions of Peloponnesus
were Achaia, Argolis, Laconia, Messenia, and Elis.  ACHAIA is a
narrow slip of country lying between the northern barrier of
Arcadia and the Corinthian gulf.  ARGOLIS, on the east, contained
several independent states, of which the most important was
Argos.  LACONIA and MESSENIA occupied the whole of the south of
the peninsula from sea to sea:  these two countries were
separated by the lofty range of Taygetus, running from north to
south, and terminating in the promontory of Taenarum (now Cape
Matapan), the southernmost point of Greece and Europe.  Sparta,
the chief town of Laconia, stood in the valley of the Eurotas,
which opens out into a plain of considerable extent towards the
Laconian gulf. Messenia, in like manner, was drained by the
Pamisus, whose plain is still more extensive and fertile than
that of the Eurotas. ELIS, on the west of Arcadia, contains the
memorable plain of Olympia, through which the Alpheus flows, and
in which the city of Pisa stood.

Of the numerous islands which line the Grecian shores, the most
important was Euboea, stretching along the coasts of Boeotia and
Attica.  South of Euboea was the group of islands called the
CYCLADES, lying around Delos as a centre; and east of these were
the SPORADES, near the Asiatic coast.  South of these groups are
the large islands of CRETE and RHODES.

The physical features of the country exercised an important
influence upon the political destinies of the people.  Greece is
one of the most mountainous countries of Europe.  Its surface is
occupied by a number of small plains, either entirely surrounded
by limestone mountains or open only to the sea.  Each of the
principal Grecian cities was founded in one of these small
plains; and, as the mountains which separated it from its
neighbours were lofty and rugged, each city grew up in solitary
independence.  But at the same time it had ready and easy access
to the sea, and Arcadia was almost the only political division
that did not possess some territory upon the coast.  Thus shut
out from their neighbours by mountains, the Greeks were naturally
attracted to the sea, and became a maritime people.  Hence they
possessed the love of freedom and the spirit of adventure, which
have always characterised, more or less the inhabitants of
maritime districts.



No nation possesses a history till events are recorded in written
documents; and it was not till the epoch known by the name of the
First Olympiad, corresponding to the year 776 B.C., that the
Greeks began to employ writing as a means for perpetuating the
memory of any historical facts.  Before that period everything is
vague and uncertain; and the exploits of the heroes related by
the poets must not be regarded as historical facts.

The PELASGIANS are universally represented as the most ancient
inhabitants of Greece.  They were spread over the Italian as well
as the Grecian peninsula; and the Pelasgic language thus formed
the basis of the Latin as well as of the Greek.  They were
divided into several tribes, of which the Hellenes were probably
one:  at any rate, this people, who originally dwelt in the south
of Thessaly, gradually spread over the rest of Greece.  The
Pelasgians disappeared before them, or were incorporated with
them, and their dialect became the language of Greece.  The
Hellenes considered themselves the descendants of one common
ancestor, Hellen, the son of Deucalion and Pyrrha.  To Hellen
were ascribed three sons, Dorus, Xuthus, and AEolus.  Of these
Dorus and AEolus gave their names to the DORIANS and AEOLIANS;
and Xuthus; through his two sons Ion and Achaeus, became the
forefather of the IONIANS and ACHAEANS.  Thus the Greeks
accounted for the origin of the four great divisions of their
race.  The descent of the Hellenes from a common ancestor,
Hellen, was a fundamental article in the popular faith.  It was a
general practice in antiquity to invent fictitious persons for
the purpose of explaining names of which the origin was buried in
obscurity.  It was in this way that Hellen and his sons came into
being; but though they never had any real existence, the tales
about them may be regarded as the traditional history of the
races to whom they gave their names.

The civilization of the Greeks and the development of their
language bear all the marks of home growth, and probably were
little affected by foreign influence.  The traditions, however,
of the Greeks would point to a contrary conclusion.  It was a
general belief among them that the Pelasgians were reclaimed from
barbarism by Oriental strangers, who settled in the country and
introduced among the rude inhabitants the first elements of
civilization.  Attica is said to have been indebted for the arts
of civilized life to Cecrops, a native of Sais in Egypt.  To him
is ascribed the foundation of the city of Athens, the institution
of marriage, and the introduction of religious rites and
ceremonies.  Argos, in like manner, is said to have been founded
by the Egyptian Danaus, who fled to Greece with his fifty
daughters, to escape from the persecution of their suitors, the
fifty sons of his brother AEgyptus.  The Egyptian stranger was
elected king by the natives, and from him the tribe of the Danai
derived their name, which Homer frequently uses as a general
appellation for the Greeks.  Another colony was the one led from
Asia by Pelops, from whom the southern peninsula of Greece
derived its name of Peloponnesus.  Pelops is represented as a
Phrygian, and the son of the wealthy king Tantalus.  He became
king of Mycenae, and the founder of a powerful dynasty, one of
the most renowned in the Heroic age of Greece.  From him was
descended Agamemnon, who led the Grecian host against Troy.

The tale of the Phoenician colony, conducted by Cadmus, and which
founded Thebes in Boeotia, rests upon a different basis.  Whether
there was such a person as the Phoenician Cadmus, and whether he
built the town called Cadmea, which afterwards became the citadel
of Thebes, as the ancient legends relate, cannot be determined;
but it is certain that the Greeks were indebted to the
Phoenicians for the art of writing; for both the names and the
forms of the letters in the Greek alphabet are evidently derived
from the Phoenician.  With this exception the Oriental strangers
left no permanent traces of their settlements in Greece; and the
population of the country continued to be essentially Grecian,
uncontaminated by any foreign elements.

The age of the heroes, from the first appearance of the Hellenes
in Thessaly to the return of the Greeks from Troy, was supposed
to be a period of about two hundred years.  These heroes were
believed to be a noble race of beings, possessing a superhuman
though not a divine nature, and superior to ordinary men in
strength of body and greatness of soul.

Among the heroes three stand conspicuously forth:  Hercules, the
national hero of Greece; Theseus, the hero of Attica; and Minos,
king of Crete, the principal founder of Grecian law and

Hercules was the son of Zeus (Jupiter) and Alcmena; but the
jealous anger of Hera (Juno) raised up against him an opponent
and a master in the person of Eurystheus at whose bidding the
greatest of all heroes was to achieve those wonderful labours
which filled the whole world with his fame.  In these are
realized, on a magnificent scale, the two great objects of
ancient heroism, the destruction of physical and moral evil, and
the acquisition of wealth and power.  Such, for instance, are the
labours in which he destroys the terrible Nemean lion and Lernean
hydra, carries off the girdle of Ares from Hippolyte, queen of
the Amazons, and seizes the golden apples of the Hesperides,
guarded by a hundred-headed dragon.

Theseus was a son of AEgeus, king of Athens, and of AEthra,
daughter of Pittheus, king of Troezen.  Among his many memorable
achievements the most famous was his deliverance of Athens from
the frightful tribute imposed upon it by Minos for the murder of
his son.  This consisted of seven youths and seven maidens whom
the Athenians were compelled to send every nine years to Crete,
there to be devoured by the Minotaur, a monster with a human body
and a bull's head, which Minos kept concealed in an inextricable
labyrinth.  The third ship was already on the point of sailing
with its cargo of innocent victims, when Theseus offered to go
with them, hoping to put an end for ever to the horrible tribute.
Ariadne, the daughter of Minos, became enamoured of the hero, and
having supplied him with a clue to trace the windings of the
labyrinth, Theseus succeeded in killing the monster, and in
tracking his way out of the mazy lair.  Theseus, on his return,
became king of Attica, and proceeded to lay the foundations of
the future greatness of the country.  He united into one
political body the twelve independent states into which Cecrops
had divided Attica, and made Athens the capital of the new
kingdom.  He then divided the citizens into three classes,
namely, EUPATRIDAE, or nobles; GEOMORI, or husbandmen; and
DEMIURGI, or artisans.

Minos, king of Crete, whose history is connected with that of
Theseus, appears, like him, the representative of an historical
and civil state of life.  Minos is said to have received the laws
of Crete immediately from Zeus; and traditions uniformly present
him as king of the sea.  Possessing a numerous fleet, he reduced
the surrounding islands, especially the Cyclades, under his
dominion, and cleared the sea of pirates.

The voyage of the Argonauts and the Trojan war were the most
memorable enterprises undertaken by collective bodies of heroes.

The Argonauts derived their name from the Argo, a ship built For
the adventurers by Jason, under the superintendence of Athena
(Minerva).  They embarked in the harbour of Iolcus in Thessaly
for the purpose of obtaining the golden fleece which was
preserved in AEa in Colchis, on the eastern shores of the Black
Sea, under the guardianship of a sleepless dragon.  The most
renowned heroes of the age took part in the expedition.  Among
them were Hercules and Theseus, as well as the principal leaders
in the Trojan war; but Jason is the central figure and the real
hero of the enterprise.  Upon arriving at AEa, after many
adventures, king AEtes promised to deliver to Jason the golden
fleece, provided he yoked two fire-breathing oxen with brazen
feet, and performed other wonderful deeds.  Here, also, as in the
legend of Theseus, love played a prominent part.  Medea, the
daughter of AEtes, who was skilled in magic and supernatural
arts, furnished Jason with the means of accomplishing the labours
imposed upon him; and as her father still delayed to surrender
the fleece, she cast the dragon asleep during the night, seized
the fleece, and sailed away in the Argo with her beloved Jason.

The Trojan war was the greatest of all the heroic achievements.
It formed the subject of innumerable epic poems, and has been
immortalised by the genius of Homer.  Paris, son of Priam, king
of Troy, abused the hospitality of Menelaus, king of Sparta, by
carrying off his wife Helen, the most beautiful woman of the age.
All the Grecian princes looked upon the outrage as one committed
against themselves.  Responding to the call of Menelaus, they
assembled in arms, elected his brother Agamemnon, king of
Mycenae, leader of the expedition, and sailed across the AEgean
in nearly 1200 ships to recover the faithless fair one.  Several
of the confederate heroes excelled Agamemnon in fame.  Among them
Achilles, chief of the Thessalian Myrmidons, stood pre-eminent in
strength, beauty, and valour; whilst Ulysses, king of Ithaca;
surpassed all the rest in the mental qualities of counsel and
eloquence.  Among the Trojans, Hector, one of the sons of Priam,
was most distinguished for heroic qualities and formed a striking
contrast to his handsome but effeminate brother Paris.  Next to
Hector in valour stood AEneas, son of Anchises and Aphrodite
(Venus).  Even the gods took part in the contest, encouraging
their favourite heroes, and sometimes fighting by their side or
in their stead.

It was not till the tenth year of the war that Troy yielded to
the inevitable decree of fate; and it is this year which forms
the subject of the Iliad.  Achilles, offended by Agamemnon,
abstains from the war; and in his absence the Greeks are no match
for Hector.  The Trojans drive them back into their camp, and are
already setting fire to their ships, when Achilles gives his
armour to his friend Patroclus, and allows him to charge at the
head of the Myrmidons.  Patroclus repulses the Trojans from the
ships, but the god Apollo is against him, and he falls under the
spear of Hector.  Desire to avenge the death of his friend proves
more powerful in the breast of Achilles than anger against
Agamemnon.  He appears again in the field in new and gorgeous
armour, forged for him by the god Hephrastus (Vulcan) at the
prayer of Thetis.  The Trojans fly before him, and, although
Achilles is aware that his own death must speedily follow that of
the Trojan hero, he slays Hector in single combat.

The Iliad closes with the burial of Hector.  The death of
Achilles and the capture of Troy were related in later poems.
The hero of so many achievements perishes by an arrow shot by the
unwarlike Paris, but directed by the hand of Apollo.  The noblest
combatants had now fallen on either side, and force of arms had
proved unable to accomplish what stratagem at length effects.  It
is Ulysses who now steps into the foreground and becomes the real
conqueror of Troy.  By his advice a wooden horse is built, in
whose inside he and other heroes conceal themselves.  The
infatuated Trojans admit the horse within their walls.  In the
dead of night the Greeks rush out and open the gates to their
comrades.  Troy is delivered over to the sword, and its glory
sinks in ashes.  The fall of Troy is placed in the year 1184 B.C.

The return of the Grecian leaders from Troy forms another series
of poetical legends.  Several meet with tragical ends.  Agamemnon
is murdered on his arrival at Mycenae, by his wife Clytaemnestra
and her paramour AEgisthus.  But of these wanderings the most
celebrated and interesting are those of Ulysses, which form the
subject of the Odyssey.  After twenty years' absence he arrives
at length in Ithaca, where he slays the numerous suitors who
devoured his substance and contended for the hand of his wife

The Homeric poems must not be regarded as a record of historical
persons and events, but, at the same time, they present a
valuable picture of the institutions and manners of the earliest
known state of Grecian society.

In the Heroic age Greece was already divided into a number of
independent states, each governed by its own king.  The authority
of the king was not limited by any laws; his power resembled that
of the patriarchs in the Old Testament; and for the exercise of
it he was responsible only to Zeus, and not to his people.  But
though the king was not restrained in the exercise of his power
by any positive laws, his authority was practically limited by
the BOULE; or council of chiefs, and the Agora, or general
assembly of freemen.  These two bodies, of little account in the
Heroic age, became in the Republican age the sole depositories of
political power.

The Greeks in the Heroic age were divided into the three classes
of nobles, common freemen, and slaves.  The nobles were raised
far above the rest of the community in honour, power, and wealth.
They were distinguished by their warlike prowess, their large
estates, and their numerous slaves.  The condition of the general
mass of freemen is rarely mentioned.  They possessed portions of
land as their own property, which they cultivated themselves; but
there was another class of poor freemen, called Thetes, who had
no land of their own, and who worked for hire on the estates of
others.  Slavery was not so prevalent in the Heroic age as at a
later time, and appears in a less odious aspect.  The nobles
alone possessed slaves, and they treated them with a degree of
kindness which frequently secured for the masters their
affectionate attachment.

Society was marked by simplicity of manners.  The kings and
nobles did not consider it derogatory to their dignity to acquire
skill in the manual arts.  Ulysses is represented as building his
own bed-chamber and constructing his own raft, and he boasts of
being an excellent mower and ploughman.  Like Esau, who made
savoury meat for his father Isaac, the Heroic chiefs prepared
their own meals and prided themselves on their skill in cookery.
Kings and private persons partook of the same food, which was of
the simplest kind.  Beef, mutton, and goat's flesh were the
ordinary meats, and cheese, flour, and sometimes fruits, also
formed part of the banquet; wine was drunk diluted with water,
and the entertainments were never disgraced by intemperance, like
those of our northern ancestors.  The enjoyment of the banquet
was heightened by the song and the dance, and the chiefs took
more delight in the lays of the minstrel than in the exciting
influence of the wine.

The wives and daughters of the chiefs, in like manner, did not
deem it beneath them to discharge various duties which were
afterwards regarded as menial.  Not only do we find them
constantly employed in weaving, spinning and embroidery, but like
the daughters of the patriarchs they fetch water from the well
and assist their slaves in washing garments in the river.

Even at this early age the Greeks had made considerable advances
in civilization.  They were collected in fortified towns, which
were surrounded by walls and adorned with palaces and temples.
The massive ruins of Mycenae and the sculptured lions on the gate
of this city belong to the Heroic age, and still excite the
wonder of the beholder.  Commerce, however, was little
cultivated, and was not much esteemed.  It was deemed more
honourable for a man to enrich himself by robbery and piracy than
by the arts of peace.  Coined money is not mentioned in the poems
of Homer.  Whether the Greeks were acquainted at this early
period with the art of writing is a question which has given rise
to much dispute, and must remain undetermined; but poetry was
cultivated with success, though yet confined to epic strains, or
the narration of the exploits and adventures of the Heroic
chiefs.  The bard sung his own song, and was always received with
welcome and honour in the palaces of the nobles.

In the battle, as depicted by Homer, the chiefs are the only
important combatants, while the people are an almost useless
mass, frequently put to rout by the prowess of a single hero.
The chief is mounted in a war chariot, and stands by the side of
his charioteer, who is frequently a friend.



The Greeks, as we have already seen, were divided into many
independent communities, but several causes bound them together
as one people.  Of these the most important were community of
blood and language--community of religious rites and festivals--
and community of manners and character.

All the Greeks were descended from the same ancestor and spoke
the same language.  They all described men and cities which were
not Grecian by the term BARBARIAN.  This word has passed into our
own language, but with a very different idea; for the Greeks
applied it indiscriminately to every foreigner, to the civilized
inhabitants of Egypt and Persia, as well as to the rude tribes of
Scythia and Gaul.

The second bond of union was a community of religious rites and
festivals.  From the earliest times the Greeks appear to have
worshipped the same gods; but originally there were no religious
meetings common to the whole nation.  Such meetings were of
gradual growth, being formed by a number of neighbouring towns,
which entered into an association for the periodical celebration
of certain religious rites.  Of these the most celebrated was the
AMPHICTYONIC COUNCIL.  It acquired its superiority over other
similar associations by the wealth and grandeur of the Delphian
temple, of which it was the appointed guardian.  It held two
meetings every year, one in the spring at the temple of Apollo at
Delphi, and the other in the autumn at the temple of Demeter
(Ceres) at Thermopylae.  Its members, who were called the
Amphictyons, consisted of sacred deputies sent from twelve
tribes, each of which contained several independent cities or
states.  But the Council was never considered as a national
congress, whose duty it was to protect and defend the common
interests of Greece; and it was only when the rights of the
Delphian god had been violated that it invoked the aid of the
various members of the league.

The Olympic Games were of greater efficacy than the amphictyonic
council in promoting a spirit of union among the various branches
of the Greek race, and in keeping alive a feeling of their common
origin.  They were open to all persons who could prove their
Hellenic blood, and were frequented by spectators from all parts
of the Grecian world.  They were celebrated at Olympia, on the
banks of the Alpheus, in the territory of Elis.  The origin of
the festival is lost in obscurity; but it is said to have been
revived by Iphitus, king of Elis, and Lycurgus the Spartan
legislator, in the year 776 B.C.; and, accordingly, when the
Greeks at a later time began to use the Olympic contest as a
chronological era, this year was regarded as the first Olympiad.
It was celebrated at the end of every four years, and the
interval which elapsed between each celebration was called an
Olympiad.  The whole festival was under the management of the
Eleans, who appointed some of their own number to preside as
judges, under the name of the Hellanodicae.  During the month in
which it was celebrated all hostilities were suspended throughout
Greece.  At first the festival was confined to a single day, and
consisted of nothing more than a match of runners in the stadium;
but in course of time so many other contests were introduced,
that the games occupied five days.  They comprised various trials
of strength and skill, such as wrestling boxing, the Pancratium
(boxing and wrestling combined), and the complicated Pentathlum
(including jumping, running, the quoit, the javelin, and
wrestling), but no combats with any kind of weapons.  There were
also horse-races and chariot-races; and the chariot-race, with
four full-grown horses, became one of the most popular and
celebrated of all the matches.

The only prize given to the conqueror was a garland of wild
olive; but this was valued as one of the dearest distinctions in
life.  To have his name proclaimed as victor before assembled
Hellas was an object of ambition with the noblest and the
wealthiest of the Greeks.  Such a person was considered to have
conferred everlasting glory upon his family and his country, and
was rewarded by his fellow-citizens with distinguished honours.

During the sixth century before the Christian era three other
national festivals--the Pythian, Nemean, and Isthmian games--
which were at first only local became open to the whole nation.
The Pythian games were celebrated in every third Olympic year, on
the Cirrhaean plain in Phocis, under the superintendence of the
Amphictyons.  The games consisted not only of matches in
gymnastics and of horse and chariot races, but also of contests
in music and poetry.  They soon acquired celebrity, and became
second only to the great Olympic festival.  The Nemean and
Isthmian games occurred more frequently than the Olympic and
Pythian.  They were celebrated once in two years--the Nemean in
the valley of Nemea between Phlius and Cleonae--and the Isthmian
by the Corinthians, on their isthmus, in honour of Poseidon
(Neptune).  As in the Pythian festival, contests in music and in
poetry, as well as gymnastics and chariot-races, formed part of
these games.  Although the four great festivals of which we have
been speaking had no influence in promoting the political union
of Greece, they nevertheless were of great importance in making
the various sections of the race feel that they were all members
of one family, and in cementing them together by common
sympathies and the enjoyment of common pleasures.  The frequent
occurrence of these festivals, for one was celebrated every gear,
tended to the same result.

The Greeks were thus annually reminded of their common origin,
and of the great distinction which existed between them and
barbarians.  Nor must we forget the incidental advantages which
attended them.  The concourse of so large a number of persons
from every part of the Grecian world afforded to the merchant
opportunities for traffic, and to the artist and the literary man
the best means of making their works known.  During the time of
the games a busy commerce was carried on; and in a spacious hall
appropriated for the purpose, the poets, philosophers, and
historians were accustomed to read their most recent works.

The habit of consulting the same oracles in order to ascertain
the will of the gods was another bond of union.  It was the
universal practice of the Greeks to undertake no matter of
importance without first asking the advice of the gods; and there
were many sacred spots in which the gods were always ready to
give an answer to pious worshippers.  The oracle of Apollo at
Delphi surpassed all the rest in importance, and was regarded
with veneration in every part of the Grecian world.  In the
centre of the temple of Delphi there was a small opening in the
ground, from which it was said that a certain gas or vapour
ascended.  Whenever the oracle was to be consulted, a virgin
priestess called PYTHIA took her seat upon a tripod which was
placed over the chasm.  The ascending vapour affected her brain,
and the words which she uttered in this excited condition were
believed to be the answer of Apollo to his worshippers.  They
were always in hexameter verse, and were reverently taken down by
the attendant priests.  Most of the answers were equivocal or
obscure; but the credit of the oracle continued unimpaired long
after the downfall of Grecian independence.

A further element of union among the Greeks was the similarity of
manners and character.  It is true the difference in this respect
between the polished inhabitants of Athens and the rude
mountaineers of Acarnania was marked and striking; but if we
compare the two with foreign contemporaries, the contrast between
them and the latter is still more striking.  Absolute despotism
human sacrifices, polygamy, deliberate mutilation of the person
as a punishment, and selling of children into slavery, existed in
some part or other of the barbarian world, but are not found in
any city of Greece in the historical times.

The elements of union of which we have been speaking only bound
the Greeks together in common feelings and sentiments:  they
never produced any political union.  The independent sovereignty
of each city was a fundamental notion in the Greek mind.  This
strongly rooted feeling deserves particular notice.  Careless
readers of history are tempted to suppose that the territory of
Greece was divided among comparatively small number of
independent states, such as Attica, Arcadia, Boeotia, Phocis,
Locris, and the like; but this is a most serious mistake, and
leads to a total misapprehension of Greek history.  Every
separate city was usually an independent state, and consequently
each of the territories described under the general names of
Arcadia, Boeotia, Phocis, and Locris, contained numerous
political communities independent of one another.  Attica, it is
true, formed a single state, and its different towns recognised
Athens as their capital and the source of supreme power; but this
is an exception to the general rule.



In the heroic age Peloponnesus was occupied by tribes of Dorian
conquerors.  They had no share in the glories of the Heroic age;
their name does not occur in the Iliad, and they are only once
mentioned in the Odyssey; but they were destined to form in
historical times one of the most important elements of the Greek
nation.  Issuing from their mountain district between Thessaly,
Locris and Phocis, they overran the greater part of Peloponnesus,
destroyed the ancient Achaean monarchies and expelled or reduced
to subjection the original inhabitants of the land, of which they
became the undisputed masters.  This brief statement contains all
that we know for certain respecting this celebrated event, which
the ancient writers placed eighty years after the Trojan war
(B.C. 1104).  The legendary account of the conquest of
Peloponnesus ran as follows:--The Dorians were led by the
Heraclidae, or descendants of the mighty hero Hercules.  Hence
this migration is called the Return of the Heraclidae.  The
children of Hercules had long been fugitives upon the face of the
earth.  They had made many attempts to regain possession of the
dominions in the Peloponnesus, of which their great sire had been
deprived by Eurystheus, but hitherto without success.  In their
last attempt Hyllus, the son of Hercules, had perished in single
combat with Echemus of Tegea; and the Heraclidae had become bound
by a solemn compact to renounce their enterprise for a hundred
years.  This period had now expired; and the great-grandsons of
Hyllus--Temenus, Cresphontes, and Aristodemus--resolved to make a
fresh attempt to recover their birthright.  They were assisted in
the enterprise by the Dorians.  This people espoused their cause
in consequence of the aid which Hercules himself had rendered to
the Dorian king, AEgimius, when the latter was hard pressed in a
contest with the Lapithae.  The invaders were warned by an oracle
not to enter Peloponnesus by the Isthmus of Corinth, but across
the mouth of the Corinthian gulf.  The inhabitants of the
northern coast of the gulf were favourable to their enterprise.
Oxylus, king of the AEtolians, became their guide; and from
Naupactus they crossed over to Peloponnesus.  A single battle
decided the contest.  Tisamenus, the son of Orestes, was defeated
and retired with a portion of his Achaean subjects to the
northern coast of Peloponnesus, then occupied by the Ionians. He
expelled the Ionians, and took possession of the country, which
continued henceforth to be inhabited by the Achaeans, and to be
called after them.  The Ionians withdrew to Attica, and the
greater part of them afterwards emigrated to Asia Minor.

The Heraclidae and the Dorians now divided between them the
dominions of Tisamenus and of the other Achaean princes.  The
kingdom of Elis was given to Oxylus as a recompense for his
services as their guide; and it was agreed that Temenus,
Cresphontes, and Eurysthenes and Procles, the infant sons of
Aristodemus (who had died at Naupactus), should draw lots for
Argos, Sparta, and Messenia.  Argos fell to Temenus, Sparta to
Eurysthenes and Procles, and Messenia to Cresphontes.

Such are the main features of the legend of the Return of the
Heraclidae.  In order to make the story more striking and
impressive, it compresses into a single epoch events which
probably occupied several generations.  It is in itself
improbable that the brave Achaeans quietly submitted to the
Dorian invaders after a momentary struggle.  We have, moreover,
many indications that such was not the fact, and that it was only
gradually and after a long protracted contest that the Dorians
became undisputed masters of the greater part of Peloponnesus.

Argos was originally the chief Dorian state in Peloponnesus, but
at the time of the first Olympiad its power had been supplanted
by that of Sparta.  The progress of Sparta from the second to the
first place among the states in the peninsula was mainly owing to
the military discipline and rigorous training of its citizens.
The singular constitution of Sparta was unanimously ascribed by
the ancients to the legislator Lycurgus, but there were different
stories respecting his date, birth, travels, legislation, and
death.  His most probable date however is B.C. 776, in which year
he is said to have assisted Iphitus in restoring the Olympic
games.  He was the son of Eunomus, one of the two kings who
reigned together in Sparta.  On the death of his father, his
elder brother, Polydectes, succeeded to the crown, but died soon
afterwards, leaving his queen with child.  The ambitious woman
offered to destroy the child, if Lycurgus would share the throne
with her.  Lycurgus pretended to consent; but as soon as she had
given birth to a son, he presented him in the market-place as the
future king of Sparta.  The young king's mother took revenge upon
Lycurgus by accusing him of entertaining designs against his
nephew's life.  Hereupon he resolved to withdraw from his native
country and to visit foreign lands.  He was absent many years,
and is said to have employed his time in studying the
institutions of other nations, in order to devise a system of
laws and regulations which might deliver Sparta from the evils
under which it had long been suffering.  During his absence the
young king had grown up, and assumed the reins of government; but
the disorders of the state had meantime become worse than ever,
and all parties longed for a termination to their present
sufferings.  Accordingly the return of Lycurgus was hailed with
delight, and he found the people both ready and willing to submit
to an entire change in their government and institutions.  He now
set himself to work to carry his long projected reforms into
effect; but before he commenced his arduous task he consulted the
Delphian oracle, from which he received strong assurances of
divine support.  Thus encouraged by the god, he suddenly
presented himself in the market-place, surrounded by thirty of
the most distinguished Spartans in arms.  His reforms were not
carried into effect without violent opposition, and in one of the
tumults which they excited, his eye is said to have been struck
out by a passionate youth.  But he finally triumphed over all
obstacles, and succeeded in obtaining the submission of all
classes in the community to his new constitution.  His last act
was to sacrifice himself for the welfare of his country.  Having
obtained from the people a solemn oath to make no alterations in
his laws before his return, he quitted Sparta for ever.  He set
out on a journey to Delphi, where he obtained an oracle from the
god, approving of all he had done, and promising prosperity to
the Spartans as long as they preserved his laws.  Whither he went
afterwards, and how and where he died, nobody could tell.  He
vanished from earth like a god, leaving no traces behind him but
his spirit:  and his grateful countrymen honoured him with a
temple, and worshipped him with annual sacrifices down to the
latest times.

The population of Laconia was divided into the three classes of
Spartans, Perioeci and Helots.
  I. The SPARTANS were the descendants of the leading Dorian
conquerors.  They formed the sovereign power of the state, and
they alone were eligible to honours and public offices.  They
lived in Sparta itself and were all subject to the discipline of
Lycurgus.  They were divided into three tribes,--the HYLLEIS, the
PAMPHILI, and the DYMANES,--which were not, however, peculiar to
Sparta, but existed in all the Dorian states.
  II. The PERIOECI were personally free, but politically subject
to the Spartans.  [This word signifies literally DWELLERS AROUND
THE CITY, and was generally used to indicate the inhabitants in
the country districts, who possessed inferior political
privileges to the citizens who lived in the city.]  They
possessed no share in the government, and were bound to obey the
commands of the Spartan magistrates.  They appear to have been
the descendants of the old Achaean population of the country, and
they were distributed into a hundred townships, which were spread
through the whole of Laconia.
  III. The HELOTS were serfs bound to the soil, which they tilled
for the benefit of the Spartan proprietors.  Their condition was
very different from that of the ordinary slaves in antiquity, and
more similar to the villanage of the middle ages.  They lived in
the rural villages, as the Perioeci did in the towns, cultivating
the lands and paying over the rent to their masters in Sparta,
but enjoying their homes, wives, and families, apart from their
master's personal superintendence.  They appear to have been
never sold, and they accompanied the Spartans to the field as
light armed troops.  But while their condition was in these
respects superior to that of the ordinary slaves in other parts
of Greece, it was embittered by the fact that they were not
strangers like the latter, but were of the same race and spoke
the same language as their masters, being probably the
descendants of the old inhabitants, who had offered the most
obstinate resistance to the Dorians, and had therefore been
reduced to slavery.  As their numbers increased, they became
objects of suspicion to their masters, and were subjected to the
most wanton and oppressive cruelty.

The functions of the Spartan government were distributed among
two kings, a senate of thirty members, a popular assembly, and an
executive directory of five men called the Ephors.

At the head of the state were the two hereditary kings.  The
existence of a pair of kings was peculiar to Sparta, and is said
to have arisen from the accidental circumstance of Aristodemus
having left twin sons, Eurysthenes and Procles.  This division of
the royal power naturally tended to weaken its influence and to
produce jealousies and dissensions between the two kings.  The
royal power was on the decline during the whole historical
period, and the authority of the kings was gradually usurped by
the Ephors, who at length obtained the entire control of the
government, and reduced the kings to a state of humiliation and

The Senate, called GERUSIA, or the COUNCIL OF ELDERS, consisted
of thirty members, among whom the two kings were included.  They
were obliged to be upwards of sixty years of age, and they held
their office for life.  They possessed considerable power and
were the only real check upon the authority of the Ephors.  They
discussed and prepared all measures which were to be brought
before the popular assembly, and they had some share in the
general administration of the state.  But the most important of
their functions was, that they were judges in all criminal cases
affecting the life of a Spartan citizen.

The Popular Assembly was of little importance, and appears to
have been usually summoned only as a matter of form for the
election of certain magistrates, for passing laws, and for
determining upon peace and war.  It would appear that open
discussion was not allowed and that the assembly rarely came to a

The Ephors were of later origin, and did not exist in the
original constitution of Lycurgus.  They may be regarded as the
representatives of the popular assembly.  They were elected
annually from the general body of Spartan citizens, and seem to
have been originally appointed to protect the interests and
liberties of the people against the encroachments of the kings
and the senate.  They correspond in many respects to the tribunes
of the people at Rome.  Their functions were at first limited and
of small importance; but in the end the whole political power
became centred in their hands.

The Spartan government was in reality a close oligarchy, in which
the kings and the senate, as well as the people, were alike
subject to the irresponsible authority of the five Ephors.

The most important part of the legislation of Lycurgus did not
relate to the political constitution of Sparta, but to the
discipline and education of the citizens.  It was these which
gave Sparta her peculiar character, and distinguished her in so
striking a manner from all the other states of Greece.  The
position of the Spartans, surrounded by numerous enemies, whom
they held in subjection by the sword alone, compelled them to be
a nation of soldiers.  Lycurgus determined that they should be
nothing else; and the great object of his whole system was to
cultivate a martial spirit, and to give them a training which
would make them invincible in battle.  To accomplish this the
education of a Spartan was placed under the control of the state
from his earliest boyhood.  Every child after birth was exhibited
to public view, and, if deemed deformed and weakly, was exposed
to perish on Mount Taygetus.  At the age of seven he was taken
from his mother's care, and handed over to the public classes.
He was not only taught gymnastic games and military exercises but
he was also subjected to severe bodily discipline, and was
compelled to submit to hardships and suffering without repining
or complaint.  One of the tests to which he was subjected was a
cruel scourging at the altar of Artemis (Diana), until his blood
gushed forth and covered the altar of the goddess.  It was
inflicted publicly before the eyes of his parents and in the
presence of the whole city; and many Spartan youths were known to
have died under the lash without uttering a complaining murmur.
No means were neglected to prepare them for the hardships and
stratagems of war.  They were obliged to wear the same garment
winter and summer, and to endure hunger and thirst, heat and
cold.  They were purposely allowed an insufficient quantity of
food, but were permitted to make up the deficiency by hunting in
the woods and mountains of Laconia.  They were even encouraged to
steal whatever they could; but if they were caught in the fact,
they were severely punished for their want of dexterity.
Plutarch tells us of a boy, who, having stolen a fox, and hid it
under his garment, chose rather to let it tear out his very
bowels than be detected in the theft.

The literary education of a Spartan youth was of a most
restricted kind.  He was taught to despise literature as unworthy
of a warrior, while the study of eloquence and philosophy, which
were cultivated at Athens with such extraordinary success, was
regarded at Sparta with contempt.  Long speeches were a Spartan's
abhorrence, and he was trained to express himself with
sententious brevity.

A Spartan was not considered to have reached the full age of
manhood till he had completed his thirtieth year.  He was then
allowed to marry, to take part in the public assembly, and was
eligible to the offices of the state.  But he still continued
under the public discipline, and was not permitted even to reside
and take his meals with his wife.  It was not till he had reached
his sixtieth year that he was released from the public discipline
and from military service.

The public mess--called SYSSITIA--is said to have been instituted
by Lycurgus to prevent all indulgence of the appetite.  Public
tables were provided, at which every male citizen was obliged to
take his meals.  Each table accommodated fifteen persons, who
formed a separate mess, into which no new member was admitted,
except by the unanimous consent of the whole company.  Each sent
monthly to the common stock a specified quantity of barley-meal,
wine, cheese, and figs and a little money to buy flesh and fish.
No distinction of any kind was allowed at these frugal meals.
Meat was only eaten occasionally; and one of the principal dishes
was black broth.  Of what it consisted we do not know.  The
tyrant Dionysius found it very unpalatable; but, as the cook told
him, the broth was nothing without the seasoning of fatigue and

The Spartan women in their earlier years were subjected to a
course of training almost as rigorous as that of the men, and
contended with each other in running, wrestling and boxing.  At
the age of twenty a Spartan woman usually married, and she was no
longer subjected to the public discipline.  Although she enjoyed
little of her husband's society, she was treated by him with deep
respect, and was allowed a greater degree of liberty than was
tolerated in other Grecian states.  Hence she took a lively
interest in the welfare and glory of her native land, and was
animated by an earnest and lofty spirit of patriotism.  The
Spartan mother had reason to be proud of herself and of her
children.  When a woman of another country said to Gorgo, the
wife of Leonidas, "The Spartan women alone rule the men," she
replied, "The Spartan women alone bring forth men."  Their
husbands and their sons were fired by their sympathy to deeds of
heroism.  "Return either with your shield, or upon it," was their
exhortation to their sons when going to battle.

Lycurgus is said to have divided the land belonging to the
Spartans into 9000 equal lots and the remainder of Laconia into
30,000 equal lots, and to have assigned to each Spartan citizen
one of the former of these lots, and to each Perioecus one of the

Neither gold nor silver money was allowed in Sparta, and nothing
but bars of iron passed in exchange for every commodity.  As the
Spartans were not permitted to engage in commerce, and all luxury
and display in dress, furniture, and food was forbidden, they had
very little occasion for a circulating medium, and iron money was
found sufficient for their few wants.  But this prohibition of
the precious metals only made the Spartans more anxious to obtain
them; and even in the times of their greatest glory the Spartans
were the most venal of the Greeks, and could rarely resist the
temptation of a bribe.

The legislation of Lycurgus was followed by important results.
It made the Spartans a body of professional soldiers, all trained
and well disciplined, at a time when military training and
discipline were little known, and almost unpractised in the other
states of Greece.  The consequence was the rapid growth of the
political power of Sparta, and the subjugation of the
neighbouring states.  At the time of Lycurgus the Spartans held
only a small portion of Laconia:  they were merely a garrison in
the heart of an enemy's country.  Their first object was to make
themselves masters of Laconia, in which they finally succeeded
after a severe struggle.  They next turned their arms against the
Messenians, Arcadians, and Argives.  Of these wars the two waged
against Messenia were the most celebrated and the most important.
They were both long protracted and obstinately contested.  They
both ended in the victory of Sparta, and in the subjugation of
Messenia.  These facts are beyond dispute; but of the details we
have no trustworthy narrative.

The FIRST MESSENIAN WAR lasted from B.C. 743 to 724.  During the
first four years the Lacedaemonians made little progress; but in
the fifth a great battle was fought, and although its result was
indecisive, the Messenians did not venture to risk another
engagement, and retired to the strongly fortified mountain of
Ithome.  In their distress they sent to consult the oracle at
Delphi, and received the appalling answer that the salvation of
Messenia required the sacrifice of a virgin of the royal house to
the gods of the lower world.  Aristodemus, who is the Messenian
hero of the first war, slew his own daughter, which so
disheartened the Spartans, that they abstained from attacking the
Messenians for some years.  In the thirteenth year of the war the
Spartan king marched against Ithome, and a second great battle
was fought, but the result was again indecisive.  The Messenian
king fell in the action; and Aristodemus, who was chosen king in
his place, prosecuted the war with vigour.  In the fifth year of
his reign a third great battle was fought.  This time the
Messenians gained a decisive victory, and the Lacedaemonians were
driven back into their own territory.  They now sent to ask
advice of the Delphian oracle, and were promised success upon
using stratagem.  They therefore had recourse to fraud:  and at
the same time various prodigies dismayed the bold spirit of
Aristodemus.  His daughter too appeared to him in a dream, showed
him her wounds, and beckoned him away.  Seeing that his country
was doomed to destruction, Aristodemus slew himself on his
daughter's tomb.  Shortly afterwards, in the twentieth year of
the war, the Messenians abandoned Ithome, which the
Lacedaemonians razed to the ground, and the whole country became
subject to Sparta.  Many of the inhabitants fled into other
countries; but those who remained were reduced to the condition
of Helots, and were compelled to pay to their masters half of the
produce of their lands.

For thirty-nine years the Messenians endured this degrading yoke.
At the end of this time they took up arms against their
oppressors.  The SECOND MESSENIAN WAR lasted from B.C. 685 to
668.  Its hero is Aristomenes, whose wonderful exploits form the
great subject of this war.  It would appear that most of the
states in Peloponnesus took part in the struggle.  The first
battle was fought before the arrival of the allies on either
side, and, though it was indecisive, the valour of Aristomenes
struck fear into the hearts of the Spartans.  To frighten the
enemy still more, the hero crossed the frontier, entered Sparta
by night, and affixed a shield to the temple of Athena (Minerva),
with the inscription, "Dedicated by Aristomenes to the goddess
from the Spartan spoils."  The Spartans in alarm sent to Delphi
for advice.  The god bade them apply to Athens for a leader.
Fearing to disobey the oracle, but with the view of rendering no
real assistance, the Athenians sent Tyrtaeus, a lame man and a
schoolmaster.  The Spartans received their new leader with due
honour; and he was not long in justifying the credit of the
oracle.  His martial songs roused their fainting courage; and so
efficacious were his poems that to them is mainly ascribed the
final success of the Spartan arms.

Encouraged by the strains of Tyrtaeus, the Spartans again marched
against the Messenians.  But they were not at first successful.
A great battle was fought at the Boar's Grave in the plain of
Stenyclerus, in which they were defeated with great loss.  In the
third year of the war another great battle was fought, in which
the Messenians suffered a signal defeat.  So greet was their
loss, that Aristomenes no longer ventured to meet the Spartans in
the open field.  Following the example of the Messenian leaders
in the former war, he retired to the mountain fortress of Ira.
The Spartans encamped at the foot of the mountain; but
Aristomenes frequently sallied from the fortress, and ravaged the
lands of Laconia with fire and sword.  It is unnecessary to
relate all the wonderful exploits of this hero in his various
incursions.  Thrice was he taken prisoner; on two occasions he
burst his bonds, but on the third he was carried to Sparta, and
thrown with his fifty companions into a deep pit, called Ceadas.
His comrades were all killed by the fall; but Aristomenes reached
the bottom unhurt.  He saw, however, no means of escape, and had
resigned himself to death; but on the third day perceiving a fox
creeping among the bodies, he grasped its tail, and, following
the animal as it struggled to escape, discovered an opening in
the rock, and on the next day was at Ira to the surprise alike of
friends and foes.  But his single prowess was not sufficient to
avert the ruin of his country.  One night the Spartans surprised
Ira, while Aristomenes was disabled by a wound; but he collected
the bravest of his followers, and forced his way through the
enemy.  Many of the Messenians went to Rhegium, in Italy, under
the sons of Aristomenes, but the hero himself finished his days
in Rhodes.

The second Messenian war was terminated by the complete
subjugation of the Messenians, who again became the serfs of
their conquerors.  In this condition they remained till the
restoration of their independence by Epaminondas in the year 369
B.C. During the whole of the intervening period the Messenians
disappear from history.  The country called Messenia in the map
became a portion of Laconia, which thus extended across the south
of Pelponnesus from the eastern to the western sea.



Sparta was the only state in Greece which continued to retain the
kingly form of government during the brilliant period of Grecian
history.  In all other parts of Greece royalty had been abolished
at as early age, and various forms of republican government
established in its stead.  The abolition of royalty was first
followed by an Oligarchy or the government of the Few.
Democracy, or the government of the Many, was of later growth.
It was not from the people that the oligarchies received their
first and greatest blow.  They were generally overthrown by the
usurpers, to whom the Greeks gave the name of TYRANTS.  [The
Greek word Tyrant does not correspond in meaning to the same word
in the English language.  It signifies simply an irresponsible
ruler, and may, therefore, be more correctly rendered by the term

The rise of the Tyrants seems to have taken place about the same
time in a large number of the Greek cities.  In most cases they
belonged to the nobles, and they generally became masters of the
state by espousing the cause of the commonalty, and using the
strength of the people to put down the oligarchy by force.  At
first they were popular with the general body of the citizens,
who were glad to see the humiliation of their former masters.
But discontent soon began to arise; the tyrant had recourse to
violence to quell disaffection; and the government became in
reality a tyranny in the modern sense of the word.

Many of the tyrants in Greece were put down by the
Lacedaemonians.  The Spartan government was essentially an
oligarchy, and the Spartans were always ready to lend their
powerful aid in favour of the government of the Few.  Hence they
took an active part in the overthrow of the despots, with the
intention of establishing the ancient oligarchy in their place.
But this rarely happened; and they found it impossible in most
cases to reinstate the former body of nobles in their ancient
privileges.  The latter, it is true, attempted to regain them and
were supported in their attempts by Sparta.  Hence arose a new
struggle.  The first contest after the abolition of royalty was
between oligarchy and the despot, the next was between oligarchy
and democracy.

The history of Athens affords the most striking illustration of
the different revolutions of which we have been speaking.

Little is known of Athens before the age of Solon.  Its legendary
tales are few, its historical facts still fewer.  Cecrops, the
first ruler of Attica, is said to have divided the country into
twelve districts, which are represented as independent
communities, each governed by a separate king.  They were
afterwards united into a single state, having Athens as its
capital and the seat of government.  At what time this important
union was effected cannot be determined; but it is ascribed to
Theseus, as the national hero of the Athenian people.

A few generations after Theseus, the Dorians are said to have
invaded Attica.  An oracle declared that they would be victorious
if they spared the life of the Athenian King; whereupon Codrus,
who then reigned at Athens, resolved to sacrifice himself for the
welfare of his country.  Accordingly he went into the invaders'
camp in disguise, provoked a quarrel with one of the Dorian
soldiers and was killed by the latter.  Upon learning the death
of the Athenian king, the Dorians retired from Attica without
striking a blow:  and the Athenians, from respect to the memory
of Codrus, abolished the title of king, and substituted for it
that of Archon or Ruler.  The office, however, was held for life,
and was confined to the family of Codrus.  His son Medon was the
first archon, and he was followed in the dignity by eleven
members of the family in succession.  But soon after the
accession Alcmaeon, the thirteenth in descent from Medon, another
change was introduced, and the duration of the archonship was
limited to ten years (B.C. 752).  The dignity was still confined
to the descendants of Medon; but in the time of Hippomenes (B.C.
714) this restriction was removed, and the office was thrown open
to all the nobles in the state.  In B.C. 683 a still more
important change took place.  The archonship was now made annual,
and its duties were distributed among nine persons, all of whom
bore the title.  The last of the decennial archons was Eryxias,
the first of the nine annual archons Creon.

Such is the legendary account of the change of government at
Athens, from royalty to an oligarchy.  It appears to have taken
place peaceably and gradually, as in most other Greek states.
The whole political power was vested in the nobles; from them the
nine annual archons were taken, and to them alone these
magistrates were responsible.  The people, or general body of
freemen, had no share in the government.

The Athenian nobles were called EUPATRIDAE, the two other classes
in the state being the GEOMORI or husbandmen, and DEMIURGI or
artisans.  This arrangement is ascribed to Theseus; but there was
another division of the people of still greater antiquity.  As
the Dorians were divided into three tribes, so the Ionians were
usually distributed into four tribes.  The latter division also
existed among the Athenians, who were Ionians, and it continued
in full vigour down to the great revolution of Clisthenes (B.C.
509).  These tribes were distinguished by the names of GELEONTES
(or TELEONTES) "cultivators," HOPLETES "warriors," AEGICORES
"goat-herds," and ARGADES "artisans."  Each tribe contained three
Phratriae, each Phratry thirty Gentes, and each Gens thirty heads
of families.

The first date in Athenian history on which certain reliance can
be placed is the institution of annual archons, in the year 683
B.C.  The duties of the government were distributed among the
nine archons in the following manner.  The first was called THE
ARCHON by way of pre-eminence, and sometimes the Archon Eponymus,
because the year was distinguished by his name.  The second
archon was called THE BASILEUS or THE KING, because he
represented the king in his capacity as high-priest of the
nation.  The third archon bore the title of THE POLEMARCH, or
Commander-in-chief and was, down to the time of Clisthenes, the
commander of the troops.  The remaining six had the common title
of THESMOTHETAE, or Legislators.  Their duties seem to have been
almost exclusively judicial.

The government of the Eupatrids was oppressive; and the
discontent of the people at length became so serious, that Draco
was appointed in 624 B.C. to draw up a written code of laws.
They were marked by extreme severity.  He affixed the penalty of
death to all crimes alike; to petty thefts, for instance, as well
as to sacrilege and murder.  Hence they were said to have been
written not in ink but in blood; and we are told that he
justified this extreme harshness by saying that small offences
deserved death, and that he knew no severer punishment for great

The legislation of Draco failed to calm the prevailing
discontent.  The people gained nothing by the written code,
except a more perfect knowledge of its severity; and civil
dissensions prevailed as extensively as before.  The general
dissatisfaction with the government was favourable to
revolutionary projects; and accordingly, twelve years after
Draco's legislation (B.C. 612), Cylon, one of the nobles,
conceived the design of depriving his brother Eupatrids of their
power, and making himself tyrant of Athens.  Having collected a
considerable force, he seized the Acropolis; but he did not meet
with support from the great mass of the people, and he soon found
himself closely blockaded by the forces of the Eupatrids.  Cylon
and his brother made their escape, but the remainder of his
associates, hard pressed by hunger, abandoned the defence of the
walls, and took refuge at the altar of Athena (Minerva).  They
were induced by the archon Megacles, one of the illustrious
family of the Alcmaeonidae, to quit the altar on the promise that
their lives should be spared; but directly they had left the
temple they were put to death, and some of them were murdered
even at the altar of the Eumenides or Furies.

The conspiracy thus failed; but its suppression was attended with
a long train of melancholy consequences.  The whole family of the
Alcmaeonidae was believed to have become tainted by the daring
act of sacrilege committed by Megacles; and the friends and
partisans of the murdered conspirators were not slow in demanding
vengeance upon the accursed race.  Thus a new element of discord
was introduced into the state, In the midst of these dissensions
there was one man who enjoyed a distinguished reputation at
Athens, and to whom his fellow citizens looked up as the only
person in the state who could deliver them from their political
and social dissensions, and secure them from such misfortunes for
the future.  This man was Solon, the son of Execestides, and a
descendant of Codrus.  He had travelled through many parts of
Greece and Asia, and had formed acquaintance with many of the
most eminent men of his time.  On his return to his native
country he distinguished himself by recovering the island of
Salamis, which had revolted to Megara (B.C. 600).  Three years
afterwards he persuaded the Alcmaeonidae to submit their case to
the judgment of three hundred Eupatridae, by whom they were
adjudged guilty of sacrilege, and were expelled from Attica.  The
banishment of the guilty race did not, however, deliver the
Athenians from their religious fears.  A pestilential disease
with which they were visited was regarded as an unerring sign of
the divine wrath.  Upon the advice of the Delphic oracle, they
invited the celebrated Cretan prophet and sage, Epimenides, to
visit Athens, and purify their city from pollution and sacrilege.
By performing certain sacrifices and expiatory acts, Epimenides
succeeded in staying the plague.

The civil dissensions however still continued.  The population of
Attica was now divided into three hostile factions, consisting of
the PEDIEIS or wealthy Eupatrid inhabitants of the plains; of the
DIACRII, or poor inhabitants of the hilly districts in the north
and east of Attica; and of the PARALI, or mercantile inhabitants
of the coasts, who held an intermediate position between the
other two.  Their disputes were aggravated by the miserable
condition of the poorer population.  The latter were in a state
of abject poverty, They had borrowed money from the wealthy at
exorbitant rates of interest upon the security of their property
and their persons.  If the principal and interest of the debt
were not paid, the creditor had the power of seizing the person
as well as the land of his debtor, and of using him as a slave.
Many had thus been torn from their homes and sold to barbarian
masters, while others were cultivating as slaves the lands of
their wealthy creditors in Attica.  Matters had at length reached
a crisis; the existing laws could no longer be enforced; and the
poor were ready to rise in open insurrection against the rich.

In these alarming circumstances the ruling oligarchy were obliged
to have recourse to Solon; and they therefore chose him Archon in
B.C. 594, investing him under that title with unlimited powers to
effect any changes he might consider beneficial to the state.
His appointment was hailed with satisfaction by the poor; and all
parties were willing to accept his mediation and reforms.

Solon commenced his undertaking by relieving the poorer class of
debtors from their existing distress.  He cancelled all contracts
by which the land or person of a debtor had been given as
security; and he forbad for the future all loans in which the
person of the debtor was pledged.  He next proceeded to draw up a
new constitution and a new code of laws.  As a preliminary step
he repealed all the laws of Draco, except those relating to
murder.  He then made a new classification of the citizens,
distributing them into four classes according to the amount of
their property, thus making wealth and not birth the title to the
honours and offices of the state.  The first class consisted of
those whose annual income was equal to 500 medimni of corn and
upwards, and were called  PENTACOSIOMEDIMNI.  [The medimnus was
one bushel and a half.]  The second class consisted of those
whose incomes ranged between 300 and 500 medimni and were called
KNIGHTS, from their being able to furnish a war-horse.  The third
class consisted of those who received between 200 and 300
medimni, and were called ZEUGITAE from their being able to keep a
yoke of oxen for the plough.  The fourth class, called THETES,
included all whose property fell short of 200 medimni.  The first
class were alone eligible to the archonship and the higher
offices of the state.  The second and third classes filled
inferior posts, and were liable to military service, the former
as horsemen, and the latter as heavy-armed soldiers on foot.  The
fourth class were excluded from all public offices, and served in
the army only as light-armed troops.  Solon, however, allowed
them to veto in the public assembly, where they must have
constituted by far the largest number.  He gave the assembly the
right of electing the archons and the other officers of the
state; and he also made the archons accountable to the assembly
at the expiration of their year of office.

This extension of the duties of the public assembly led to the
institution of a new body.  Solon created the Senate, or Council
of Four Hundred with the special object of preparing all matters
for the discussion of the public assembly, of presiding at its
meetings, and of carrying its resolutions into effect.  No
subject could be introduced before the people, except by a
previous resolution of the Senate.  The members of the Senate
were elected by the public assembly, one hundred from each of the
four ancient tribes, which were left untouched by Solon.  They
held their office for a year, and were accountable at its
expiration to the public assembly for the manner in which they
had discharged their duties.

The Senate of the Areopagus [It received its name from its place
of meeting, which was a rocky eminence opposite the Acropolis,
called the hill of Ares (Mars Hill)], is said by some writers to
have been instituted by Solon; but it existed long before his
time, and may be regarded as the representative of the Council of
Chiefs in the Heroic age.  Solon enlarged its powers, and
intrusted it with the general supervision of the institutions and
laws of the state, and imposed upon it the duty of inspecting the
lives and occupations of the citizens.  All archons became
members of it at the expiration of their year of office.

Solon laid only the foundation of the Athenian democracy by
giving the poorer classes a vote in the popular assembly, and by
enlarging the power of the latter; but he left the government
exclusively in the hands of the wealthy.  For many years after
his time the government continued to be an oligarchy, but was
exercised with more moderation and justice than formerly.

Solon enacted numerous laws, containing regulations on almost all
subjects connected with the public and private life of the
citizens.  He encouraged trade and manufactures, and invited
foreigners to settle in Athens by the promise of protection and
by valuable privileges.  To discourage idleness a son was not
obliged to support his father in old age, if the latter had
neglected to teach him some trade or occupation.

Solon punished theft by compelling the guilty party to restore
double the value of the property stolen.  He forbade speaking
evil either of the dead or of the living.

Solon is said to have been aware that he had left many
imperfections in his laws.  He described them not as the best
laws which he could devise, but as the best which the Athenians
could receive.  Having bound the government and people of Athens
by a solemn oath to observe his institutions for at least ten
years, he left Athens and travelled in foreign lands.  During his
absence the old dissensions between the Plain, the Shore, and the
Mountain broke out afresh with more violence than ever.  The
first was headed by Lycurgus, the second by Megacles, an
Alcmaeonid, and the third by Pisistratus, the cousin of Solon.
Of these leaders, Pisistratus was the ablest and the most
dangerous.  He had espoused the cause of the poorest of the three
classes, in order to gain popularity, and to make himself master
of Athens.  Solon on his return to Athens detected the ambitious
designs of his kinsman, and attempted to disuade him from them.
Finding his remonstrances fruitless, he next denounced his
projects in verses addressed to the people.  Few, however, gave
any heed to his warnings:  and Pisistratus, at length finding his
schemes ripe for action, had recourse to a memorable strategem to
secure his object.  One day he appeared in the market-place in a
chariot, his mules and his own person bleeding with wounds
inflicted with his own hands.  These he exhibited to the people,
telling them that he had been nearly murdered in consequence of
defending their rights.  The popular indignation was excited; and
a guard of fifty clubmen was granted him for his future security.
He gradually increased the number of his guard and soon found
himself strong enough to throw off the mask and seize the
Acropolis (B.C. 560).  Megacles and the Alcmaeonidae left the
city.  Solon alone had the courage to oppose the usurpation, and
upbraided the people with their cowardice and their treachery.
"You might," said he, "with ease have crushed the tyrant in the
bud; but nothing now remains but to pluck him up by the roots."
But no one responded to his appeal.  He refused to fly; and when
his friends asked him on what he relied for protection, "On my
old age," was his reply.  It is creditable to Pisistratus that he
left his aged relative unmolested, and even asked his advice in
the administration of the government.  Solon did not long survive
the overthrow of the constitution.  He died a year or two
afterwards at the advanced age of eighty.  His ashes are said to
have been scattered by his own direction round the island of
Salamis, which he had won for the Athenian people.

Pisistratus however did not retain his power long.  The leaders
of the factions of the Shore and the Plain combined and drove the
usurper into exile.  But the Shore and the Plain having
quarrelled, Pisistratus was recalled and again became master of
Athens.  Another revolution shortly afterwards drove him into
exile a second time, and he remained abroad ten years.  At
length, with the assistance of mercenaries from other Grecian
states and with the aid of his partisans in Athens, he became
master of Athens for the third time, and henceforth continued in
possession of the supreme power till the day of his death.  As
soon as he was firmly established in the government, his
administration was marked by mildness and equity.  He maintained
the institutions of Solon, taking care, however, that the highest
offices should always be held by some members of his own family.
He not only enforced strict obedience to the laws, but himself
set the example of submitting to them.  Being accused of murder,
he disdained to take advantage of his authority, and went in
person to plead his cause before the Areopagus, where his accuser
did not venture to appear.  He courted popularity by largesses to
the citizens and by throwing open his gardens to the poor.  He
adorned Athens with many public buildings.  He commenced on a
stupendous scale a temple to the Olympian Zeus, which remained
unfinished for centuries, and was at length completed by the
emperor Hadrian.  He was a patron of literature, as well as of
the arts.  He is said to have been the first person in Greece who
collected a library, which he threw open to the public; and to
him posterity is indebted for the collection of the Homeric
poems.  On the whole it cannot be denied that he made a wise and
noble use of his power.

Pisistratus died at an advanced age in 527 B.C., thirty-three
years after his first usurpation.  He transmitted the sovereign
power to his sons, Hippias and Hipparchus, who conducted the
government on the same principles as their father.  Hipparchus
inherited his father's literary tastes.  He invited several
distinguished poets, such as Anacreon and Simonides, to his
court.  The people appear to have been contented with their rule;
and it was only an accidental circumstance which led to their
overthrow and to a change in the government.

Their fall was occasioned by the conspiracy of Harmodius and
Aristogiton, who were attached to each other by a most intimate
friendship.  Harmodius having given offence to Hippias, the
despot revenged himself by putting a public affront upon his
sister.  This indignity excited the resentment of the two
friends, and they now resolved to slay the despots at the
festival of the Great Panathenaea, when all the citizens were
required to attend in arms.  Having communicated their design to
a few associates, the conspirators appeared armed at the
appointed time like the rest of the citizens, but carrying
concealed daggers besides.  Harmodius and Aristogiton had planned
to kill Hippias first as he was arranging the order of the
procession outside the city, but, upon approaching the spot where
he was standing, they were thunderstruck at beholding one of the
conspirators in close conversation with the despot.  Believing
that they were betrayed, they rushed back into the city with
their daggers hid in the myrtle boughs which they were to have
carried in the procession, and killed Hipparchus.  Harmodius was
immediately cut down by the guards.  Aristogiton died under the
tortures to which he was subjected in order to compel him to
disclose his accomplices.

Hipparchus was assassinated in B.C. 514, the fourteenth year
after the death of Pisistratus.  From this time the character of
the government became entirely changed.  His brother's murder
converted Hippias into a cruel and suspicious tyrant.  He put to
death numbers of the citizens, and raised large sums of money by
extraordinary taxes.

The Alcmaeonidae, who had lived in exile ever since the third and
final restoration of Pisistratus to Athens, now began to form
schemes to expel the tyrant.  Clisthenes, the son of Megacles,
who was the head of the family, secured the Delphian oracle by
pecuniary presents to the Pythia, or priestess, henceforth,
whenever the Spartans came to consult the oracle, the answer of
the priestess was always the same, "Athens must be liberated."
This order was so often repeated, that the Spartans at last
resolved to obey.  Cleomenes, king of Sparta, defeated the
Thessalian allies of Hippias; and the tyrant, unable to meet his
enemies in the field, took refuge in the Acropolis.  Here he
might have maintained himself in safety, had not his children
been made prisoners as they were being secretly carried out of
the country.  To procure their restoration, he consented to quit
Attics in the space of five days.  He sailed to Asia, and took up
his residence at Sigeum in the Troad, which his father had
wrested from the Mytilenaeans in war.

Hippias was expelled in B.C. 510, four years after the
assassination of Hipparchus.  These four years had been a time of
suffering and oppression for the Athenians, and had effaced from
their minds all recollection of the former mild rule of
Pisistratus and his sons.  Hence the expulsion of the family was
hailed with delight.  The memory of Harmodius and Aristogiton was
cherished with the fondest reverence; and the Athenians of a
later age, overlooking the four years which had elapsed from
their death to the overthrow of the despotism, represented them
as the liberators of their country and the first martyrs for its
liberty.  Their statues were erected in the market-place soon
after the expulsion of Hippias; their descendants enjoyed
immunity from all taxes and public burdens; and their deed of
vengeance formed the favourite subject of drinking songs.

The Lacedaemonians quitted Athens soon after Hippias had sailed
away, leaving the Athenians to settle their own affairs.
Clisthenes, to whom Athens was mainly indebted for its liberation
from the despotism, aspired to be the political leader of the
state but he was opposed by Isagoras, the leader of the party of
the nobles.  By the Solonian constitution, the whole political
power was vested in the hands of the nobles; and Clisthenes soon
found that it was hopeless to contend against his rival under the
existing order of things.  For this reason he resolved to
introduce an important change in the constitution, and to give to
the people an equal share in the government.

The reforms of Clisthenes gave birth to the Athenian democracy,
which can hardly be said to have existed before this time.  His
first and most important measure was a redistribution of the
whole population of Attica into ten new tribes.  He abolished the
four ancient Ionic tribes, and enrolled in the ten new tribes all
the free inhabitants of Attica, including both resident aliens
and even emancipated slaves.  He divided the tribes into a
certain number of cantons or townships, called DEMI, which at a
later time were 174 in number.  Every Athenian citizen was
obliged to be enrolled in a demus, each of which, like a parish
in England, administered its own affairs.  It had its public
meetings it levied rates, and was under the superintendence of an
officer called DEMARCHUS.

The establishment of the ten new tribes led to a change in the
number of the Senate.  It had previously consisted of 400
members, but it was now enlarged to 500, fifty being selected
from each of the ten new tribes.  The Ecclesia, or formal
assembly of the citizens, was now summoned at certain fixed
periods; and Clisthenes transferred the government of the state,
which had hitherto been in the hands of the archons, to the
senate and the ecclesia.  He also increased the judicial as well
as the political power of the people; and enacted that all public
crimes should be tried by the whole body of citizens above thirty
years of age, specially convoked and sworn for the purpose.  The
assembly thus convened was called HELIAEA and its members
HELIASTS.  Clisthenes also introduced the OSTRACISM, by which an
Athenian citizen might be banished without special accusation,
trial, or defence for ten years, which term was subsequently
reduced to five.  It must be recollected that the force which a
Greek government had at its disposal was very small; and that it
was comparatively easy for an ambitious citizen, supported by a
numerous body of partisans, to overthrow the constitution and
make himself despot.  The Ostracism was the means devised by
Clisthenes for removing quietly from the state a powerful party
leader before he could carry into execution any violent schemes
for the subversion of the government.  Every precaution was taken
to guard this institution from abuse.  The senate and the
ecclesia had first to determine by a special vote whether the
safety of the state required such a step to be taken.  If they
decided in the affirmative, a day was fixed for the voting, and
each citizen wrote upon a tile or oyster-shell [OSTRACON, whence
the name OSTRACISM] the name of the person whom he wished to
banish.  The votes were then collected, And if it was found that
6000 had been recorded against any one person, he was obliged to
withdraw from the city within ten days:  if the number of votes
did not amount to 6000, nothing was done.

The aristocratical party, enraged at these reforms called in the
assistance of Cleomenes, king of the Lacedaemonians.  Athens was
menaced by foreign enemies and distracted by party struggles.
Clisthenes was at first compelled to retire from Athens; but the
people rose in arms against Cleomenes, expelled the
Lacedaemonians, who had taken possession of the city, and
recalled Clisthenes.  Thereupon Cleomenes collected a
Peloponnesian army in order to establish Isagoras as a tyrant
over the Athenians, and at the same time he concerted measures
with the Thebans and the Chalcidians of Euboea for a simultaneous
attack upon Attica.  The Peloponnesian army, commanded by the two
kings, Cleomenes and Demaratus, entered Attica, and advanced as
far as Eleusis; but when the allies became aware of the object
for which they had been summoned, they refused to march farther,
and strongly protested against the attempt to establish a tyranny
at Athens.  Their remonstrances being seconded by Demaratus,
Cleomenes found it necessary to abandon the expedition and return
home.  At a later period (B.C. 491) Cleomenes took revenge upon
Demaratus by persuading the Spartans to depose him upon the
ground of illegitimacy.  The exiled king took refuge at the
Persian court.

The unexpected retreat of the Peloponnesian army delivered the
Athenians from their most formidable enemy, and they lost no time
in turning their arms against their other foes.  Marching into
Boeotia, they defeated the Thebans and then crossed over into
Euboea, where they gained a decisive victory over the
Chalcidians.  In order to secure their dominion in Euboea, and at
the same time to provide for their poorer citizens, the Athenians
distributed the estates of the wealthy Chalcidian landowners
among 4000 of their citizens, who settled in the country under
the name of CLERUCI.

The successes of Athens excited the jealousy of the Spartans, and
they now resolved to make a third attempt to overthrow the
Athenian democracy.  They had meantime discovered the deception
which had been practised upon them by the Delphic oracle; And
they invited Hippias to come from Sigeum to Sparta, in order to
restore him to Athens.  The experience of the last campaign had
taught them that they could not calculate upon the co-operation
of their allies without first obtaining their approval of the
project; and they therefore summoned deputies from all their
allies to meet at Sparta, in order to determine respecting the
restoration of Hippias.  But the proposal was received with
universal repugnance; and the Spartans found it necessary to
abandon their project.  Hippias returned to Sigeum, and
afterwards proceeded to the court of Darius.

Athens had now entered upon her glorious career.  The
institutions of Clisthenes had given her citizens a personal
interest in the welfare and the grandeur of their country.  A
spirit of the warmest patriotism rapidly sprang up among them;
and the history of the Persian wars, which followed almost
immediately, exhibits a striking proof of the heroic sacrifices
which they were prepared to make for the liberty and independence
of their state.



The vast number of the Greek colonies, their wide-spread
diffusion over all parts of the Mediterranean, which thus became
a kind of Grecian lake, and their rapid growth in wealth, power,
and intelligence, afford the most striking proofs of the
greatness of this wonderful people.  Civil dissensions and a
redundant population were the chief causes of the origin of most
of the Greek colonies.  They were usually undertaken with the
approbation of the cities from which they issued, and under the
management of leaders appointed by them.  But a Greek colony was
always considered politically independent of the mother-city and
emancipated from its control.  The only connexion between them
was one of filial affection and of common religious ties.  Almost
every colonial Greek city was built upon the sea-coast, and the
site usually selected contained a hill sufficiently lofty to form
an acropolis.

The Grecian colonies may be arranged in four groups:  1. Those
founded in Asia Minor and the adjoining islands;  2. Those in the
western parts of the Mediterranean, in Italy, Sicily, Gaul, and
Spain;  3. Those in Africa;  4. Those in Epirus, Macedonia, and

1. The earliest Greek colonies were those founded on the western
shores of Asia Minor.  They were divided into three great masses,
each bearing the name of that section of the Greek race with
which they claimed affinity.  The AEolic cities covered the
northern part of this coast, together with the islands of Lesbos
and Tenedos; the Ionians occupied the centre, with the islands of
Chios and Samos; and the Dorians the southern portion, with the
islands of Rhodes and Cos.  Most of these colonies were founded
in consequence of the changes in the population of Greece which
attended the conquest of Peloponnesus by the Dorians.  The Ionic
cities were early distinguished by a spirit of commercial
enterprise, and soon rose superior in wealth and in power to
their AEolian and Dorian neighbours.  Among the Ionic cities
themselves Miletus and Ephesus were the most flourishing, Grecian
literature took its rise in the AEolic and Ionic cities of Asia
Minor.  Homer was probably a native of Smyrna.  Lyric poetry
flourished in the island of Lesbos, where Sappho and Alcaeus were
born.  The Ionic cities were also the seats of the earliest
schools of Grecian philosophy.  Thales, who founded the Ionic
school of philosophy, was a native of Miletus.  Halicarnassus was
one of the most important of the Doric cities, of which Herodotus
was a native, though he wrote in the Ionic dialect.

2. The earliest Grecian settlement in Italy was Cumae in
Campania, situated near Cape Misenum, on the Tyrrhenian sea.  It
is said to have been a joint colony from the AEolic Cyme in Asia
and from Chalcis in Euboea, and to have been founded, according
to the common chronology, in B.C. 1050.  Cumae was for a long
time the most flourishing city in Campania; and it was not till
its decline in the fifth century before the Christian era that
Capua rose into importance.

The earliest Grecian settlement in Sicily was founded in B.C.
735.  The extraordinary fertility of the land soon attracted
numerous colonists from various parts of Greece, and there arose
on the coasts of Sicily a succession of flourishing cities.  Of
these, Syracuse and Agrigentum, both Dorian colonies, became the
most powerful.  The former was founded by the Corinthians in B.C.
734, and at the time of its greatest prosperity contained a
population of 500,000 souls, and was surrounded by walls twenty-
two miles in circuit.  Its greatness, however, belongs to a later
period of Grecian history.

The Grecian colonies in southern Italy began to be planted at
nearly the same time as in Sicily.  They eventually lined the
whole southern coast, as far as Cumae on the one sea and Tarentum
on the other.  They even surpassed those in Sicily in number and
importance; and so numerous and flourishing did they become, that
the south of Italy received the name of Magna Graecia.  Of these,
two of the earliest and most prosperous were Sybaris and Croton,
both situated upon the gulf of Tarentum, and both of Achaean
origin.  Sybaris was planted in B.C. 720 and Croton in B.C. 710.
For two centuries they seem to have lived in harmony, and we know
scarcely anything of their history till their fatal contest in
B.C. 510, which ended in the ruin of Sybaris.  During the whole
of this period they were two of the most flourishing cities in
all Hellas.  Sybaris in particular attained to an extraordinary
degree of wealth, and its inhabitants were so notorious for their
luxury, effeminacy, and debauchery, that their name has become
proverbial for a voluptuary in ancient and modern times.  Croton
was the chief seat of the Pythagorean philosophy.  Pythagroras
was a native of Samos, but emigrated to Croton, where he met with
the most wonderful success in the propagation of his views.  He
established a kind of religious brotherhood, closely united by a
sacred vow.  They believed in the transmigration of souls, and
their whole training was designed to make them temperate and
self-denying.  The doctrines of Pythagoras spread through many of
the other cities of Magna Graecia.

Of the numerous other Greek settlements in the south of Italy,
those of Locri, Rhegium, and Tarentum were the meet important.
Locri was founded by the Locrians from the mother-country in B.C.
683.  The laws of this city were drawn up by one of its citizens,
named Zaleucus, and so averse were the Locrians to any change in
them, that whoever proposed a new law had to appear in the public
assembly with a rope round his neck, which was immediately
tightened if he failed to convince his fellow-citizens of the
necessity of the alteration.  Rhegium, situated on the straits of
Messina, opposite Sicily, was colonised by the Chalcidians, but
received a large body of Messenians, who settled here at the
close of the Messenian war.  Anaxilas, tyrant of Rhegium about
B.C. 500, was of Messenian descent.  He seized the Sicilian
Zancle on the opposite coast, and changed its name into Messana,
which it still bears.  Tarentum was a colony from Sparta and was
founded about B.C. 708.  After the destruction of Sybaris it was
the most powerful and flourishing city in Magna Graecia, and
continued to enjoy great prosperity till its subjugation by the
Romans.  Although of Spartan origin, it did not maintain Spartan
habits, and its citizens were noted at a later time for their
love of luxury and pleasure.

The Grecian settlements in the distant countries of Gaul and
Spain were not numerous.  The most celebrated was Massalia, the
modern Marseilles, founded by the Ionic Phocaeans in B.C. 600.

3. The northern coast of Africa, between the territories of
Carthage and Egypt, was also occupied by Greek colonists.  The
city of Cyrene was founded about B.C. 630.  It was a colony from
the island of Thera in the AEgean, which was itself a colony from
Sparta.  The situation of Cyrene was well chosen.  It stood on
the edge of a range of hills, at the distance of ten miles from
the Mediterranean, of which it commanded a fine view.  These
hills descended by a succession of terraces to the port of the
town, called Apollonia.  The climate was most salubrious, and the
soil was distinguished by extraordinary fertility.  With these
advantages Cyrene rapidly grew in wealth and power; and its
greatness is attested by the immense remains which still mark its
desolate site.  Cyrene planted several colonies in the adjoining
district, of which Barca, founded about B.C. 560, was the most

4. There were several Grecian colonies situated on the eastern
side of the Ionian sea, in Epirus and its immediate
neighbourhood.  Of these the island of Corcyra, now called Corfu,
was the most wealthy and powerful.  It was founded by the
Corinthians about B.C. 700, and in consequence of its commercial
activity it soon became a formidable rival to the mother-city.
Hence a war broke out between these two states at an early
period; and the most ancient naval battle on record was the one
fought between their fleets in B.C. 664.  The dissensions between
the mother-city and her colony are frequently mentioned in
Grecian history, and were one of the immediate causes of the
Peloponnesian war.  Notwithstanding their quarrels they joined in
planting four Grecian colonies upon the same line of coast--
Leucas, Anactorium, Apollonia, and Epidamnus.

The colonies in Macedonia and Thrace were very numerous, and
extended all along the coast of the AEgean, of the Hellespont, of
the Propontis, and of the Euxine, from the borders of Thessaly to
the mouth of the Danube.  Of these we can only glance at the most
important.  The colonies on the coast of Macedonia were chiefly
founded by Chalcis and Eretria in Euboea; and the peninsula of
Chalcidice, with its three projecting headlands, was covered with
their settlements, and derived its name from the former city.
The Corinthians likewise planted a few colonies on this coast, of
which Potidaea, on the narrow isthmus of Pallene, most deserves

Of the colonies in Thrace, the most flourishing were Selymbria
and Byzantium, both founded by the Megarians, who appear as an
enterprising maritime people at an early period.


MARATHON, B.C. 500-490.

The Grecian cities on the coast of Asia Minor were the neighbours
of an Asiatic power which finally reduced them to subjection.
This was the kingdom of Lydia, of which Sardis was the capital.
Croesus, the last and most powerful of the Lydian kings, who
ascended the throne B.C. 560, conquered in succession all the
Grecian cities on the coast.  His rule, however, was not
oppressive, and he permitted the cities to regulate their own
affairs.  He spoke the Greek language, welcomed Greek guests, and
reverenced the Greek oracles, which he enriched with the most
munificent offerings.  He extended his dominions in Asia Minor as
far as the river Halys, and he formed a close alliance with
Astyages, king of the Medes, who were then the ruling race in
Asia.  Everything seemed to betoken uninterrupted prosperity,
when a people hitherto almost unknown suddenly became masters of
the whole of western Asia.

The Persians were of the same race as the Medes and spoke a
dialect of the same language.  They inhabited the mountainous
region south of Media, which slopes gradually down to the low
grounds on the coast of the Persian gulf.  While the Medes became
enervated by the corrupting influences to which they were
exposed, the Persians preserved in their native mountains their
simple and warlike habits.  They were a brave and hardy nation,
clothed in skins, drinking only water, and ignorant of the
commonest luxuries of life.  Cyrus led these fierce warriors from
their mountain fastnesses, defeated the Medes in battle, took
Astyages prisoner, and deprived him of his throne.  The other
nations included in the Median empire submitted to the conqueror,
and the sovereignty of Upper Asia thus passed from the Medes to
the Persians.  The accession of Cyrus to the empire is placed in
B.C. 559.  A few years afterwards Cyrus turned his arms against
the Lydians, took Sardis, and deprived Croesus of his throne
(B.C. 546).  The fall of Croesus was followed by the subjection
of the Greek cities in Asia to the Persian yoke.  They offered a
brave but ineffectual resistance, and were taken one after the
other by Harpagus the Persian general.  Even the islands of
Lesbos and Chios sent in their submission to Harpagus, although
the Persians then possessed no fleet to force them to obedience.
Samos, on the other hand, maintained its independence, and
appears soon afterwards one of the most powerful of the Grecian

During the reign of Cambyses (B.C. 529-521), the son and
successor of Cyrus, the Greek cities of Asia remained obedient to
their Persian governors.  It was during this reign that
Polycrates, tyrant of Samos, became the master of the Grecian
seas.  The ambition and good fortune of this enterprising tyrant
were alike remarkable.  He possessed a hundred ships of war, with
which he conquered several of the islands; and he aspired to
nothing less than the dominion of Ionia, as well as of the
islands in the AEgean.  The Lacedaemonians, who had invaded the
island at the invitation of the Samian exiles, for the purpose of
overthrowing his government, were obliged to retire, after
besieging his city in vain for forty days.  Everything which he
undertook seemed to prosper; but his uninterrupted good fortune
at length excited the alarm of his ally Amasis, the king of
Egypt.  According to the tale related by Herodotus, the Egyptian
king, convinced that such amazing good fortune would sooner or
later incur the envy of the gods, wrote to Polycrates, advising
him to throw away one of his most valuable possessions and thus
inflict some injury upon himself.  Thinking the advice to be
good, Polycrates threw into the sea a favourite ring of matchless
price and beauty; but unfortunately it was found a few days
afterwards in the belly of a fine fish which a fisherman had sent
him as a present.  Amasis now foresaw that the ruin of Polycrates
was inevitable, and sent a herald to Samos to renounce his
alliance.  The gloomy anticipations of the Egyptian monarch
proved well founded.  In the midst of all his prosperity
Polycrates fell by a most ignominious fate.  Oroetes, the satrap
of Sardis, had for some unknown cause conceived a deadly hatred
against the Samian despot.  By a cunning stratagem the satrap
allured him to the mainland, where he was immediately arrested
and hanged upon a cross (B.C. 522).

The reign of Darius, the third king of Persia.  (B.C. 521-485),
is memorable in Grecian history.  In his invasion of Scythia, his
fleet, which was furnished by the Asiatic Greeks, was ordered to
sail up the Danube and throw a bridge of boats across the river.
The King himself, with his land forces, marched through Thrace;
and, crossing the bridge, placed it under the care of the Greeks,
telling them that, if he did not return within sixty days, they
might break it down, and sail home.  He then left them, and
penetrated into the Scythian territory.  The sixty days had
already passed away, and there was yet no sign of the Persian
army; but shortly afterwards the Greeks were astonished by the
appearance of a body of Scythians, who informed them that Darius
was in full retreat, pursued by the whole Scythian nation, and
that his only hope of safety depended upon that bridge.  They
urged the Greeks to seize this opportunity of destroying the
Persian army, and of recovering their own liberty, by breaking
down the bridge.  Their exhortations were warmly seconded by the
Athenian Miltiades, the tyrant of the Thracian Chersonesus, and
the future conqueror of Marathon.  The other rulers of the Ionian
cities were at first disposed to follow his suggestion; but as
soon as Histiaeus of Miletus reminded them that their sovereignty
depended upon the support of the Persian king, and that his ruin
would involve their own, they changed their minds and resolved to
await the Persians.  After enduring great privations and
sufferings Darius and his army at length reached the Danube and
crossed the bridge in safety.  Thus the selfishness of these
Grecian despots threw away the most favourable opportunity that
ever presented itself of delivering their native cities from the
Persian yoke.  To reward the services of Histiaeus, Darius gave
him the town of Myrainus, near the Strymon.  Darius, on his
return to Asia, left Megabazus in Europe with an army of 80,000
men to complete the subjugation of Thrace and of the Greek cities
upon the Hellespont.  Megabazus not only subdued the Thracians,
but crossed the Strymon, conquered the Paeonians, and penetrated
as far as the frontiers of Macedonia.  He then sent heralds into
the latter country to demand earth and water, the customary
symbols of submission.  These were immediately granted by
Amyntas, the reigning monarch (B.C. 510); and thus the Persian
dominions were extended to the borders of Thessaly.  Megabazus,
on his return to Sardis, where Darius awaited him, informed the
Persian monarch that Histiaeus was collecting the elements of a
power which might hereafter prove formidable to the Persian
sovereignty, since Myrcinus commanded the navigation of the
Strymon, and consequently the commerce with the interior of
Thrace.  Darius, perceiving that the apprehensions of his general
were not without foundation, summoned Histiaeus to his presence,
and, under the pretext that he could not bear to be deprived of
the company of his friend, carried him with the rest of the court
to Susa.  This apparently trivial circumstance was attended with
important consequences to the Persian empire and to the whole
Grecian race.

For the next few years everything remained quiet in the Greek
cities of Asia; but about B.C. 502 a revolution in Naxos, one of
the islands in the AEgean Sea, first disturbed the general
repose, and occasioned the war between Greece and Asia.  The
aristocratical exiles, who had been driven out of Naxos by a
rising of the people, applied for aid to Aristagoras, the tyrant
of Miletus and the son-in-law of Histiaeus.  Aristagoras readily
promised his assistance, knowing that, if they were restored by
his means, he should become master of the island.  He obtained
the co-operation of Artaphernes, the satrap of western Asia by
holding out to him the prospect of annexing not only Naxos, but
all the islands of the AEgean sea, to the Persian empire.  He
offered at the same time to defray the expense of the armament.
Artaphernes placed at his disposal a fleet of 200 ships under the
command of Megabates, a Persian of high rank; but Aristagoras
having affronted the Persian admiral, the latter revenged himself
by privately informing the Naxians of the object of the
expedition, which had hitherto been kept a secret.  When the
Persian fleet reached Naxos they experienced a vigorous
resistance; and at the end of four months they were compelled to
abandon the enterprise and return to Miletus.  Aristagoras was
now threatened with utter ruin.  Having deceived Artaphernes, and
incurred the enmity of Megabates, he could expect no favour from
the Persian government, and might be called upon at any moment to
defray the expenses of the armament.  In these difficulties he
began to think of exciting a revolt of his countrymen; and while
revolving the project he received a message from his father-in-
law, Histiaeus, urging him to this very step.  Afraid of trusting
any one with so dangerous a message, Histiaeus had shaved the
head of a trusty slave, branded upon it the necessary words, and
as soon as the hair had grown again sent him off to Miletus.  His
only motive for urging the Ionians to revolt was the desire of
escaping from captivity at Susa, thinking that Darius would set
him at liberty in order to put down an insurrection of his
countrymen.  The message from Histiaeus fixed the wavering
resolution of Aristagoras.  He forthwith called together the
leading citizens of Miletus, laid before them the project of
revolt, and asked them for advice.  They all approved of the
scheme, with the exception of Hecataeus, one of the earliest
Greek historians.  Aristagoras laid down the supreme power in
Miletus, and nominally resigned to the people the management of
their own affairs.  A democratical form of government was
established in the other Greek cities of Asia, which thereupon
openly revolted from Persia (B.C. 500).

Aristagoras now resolved to cross over to Greece, in order to
solicit assistance.  The Spartans, to whom he first applied,
refused to take any part in the war; but at Athens he met with a
very different reception.  The Athenians sympathised with the
Ionians as their kinsmen and colonists, and were incensed against
the satrap Artaphernes, who had recently commanded them to recall
Hippias.  Accordingly they voted to send a squadron of twenty
ships to the assistance of the Ionians; and in the following year
(B.C. 499) this fleet, accompanied by five ships from Eretria in
Euboea, crossed the AEgean.  The troops landed at Ephesus, and,
being reinforced by a strong body, of Ionians, marched upon
Sardis.  Artaphernes was taken unprepared; and not having
sufficient troops to man the walls, he retired into the citadel,
leaving the town a prey to the invaders.  Accordingly they
entered it unopposed; and while engaged in pillage, one of the
soldiers set fire to a house.  As most of the houses were built
of wickerwork and thatched with straw, the flames rapidly spread,
and in a short time the whole city was in flames.  The Greeks, on
their return to the coast, were overtaken by a large Persian
force and defeated with great slaughter.  The Athenians hastened
on board their ships and sailed home.

When Darius heard of the burning of Sardis, he burst into a
paroxysm of rage.  It was against the obscure strangers who had
dared to burn one of his capitals that his wrath was chiefly
directed.  "The Athenians!"  he exclaimed, "who are they?"  Upon
being informed he took his bow, shot an arrow high into the air,
saying, "Grant me, Jove, to take vengeance upon the Athenians!"
And he charged one of his attendants to remind him thrice every
day at dinner "Sire, remember the Athenians."  Meantime the
insurrection spread to the Greek cities in Cyprus, as well as to
those on the Hellespont and the Propontis, and seemed to promise
permanent independence to the Asiatic Greeks; but they were no
match for the whole power of the Persian empire, which was soon
brought against them.  Cyprus was subdued, and siege laid to the
cities upon the coast of Asia.  Aristagoras now began to despair,
and basely deserted his countrymen, whom he had led into peril.
Collecting a large body of Milesians, he set sail for the
Thracian coast, where he was slain under the walls of a town to
which he had laid siege.  Soon after his departure, his father-
in-law, Histiaeus came down to the coast.  The artful Greek not
only succeeded in removing the suspicions which Darius first
entertained respecting him, but he persuaded the king to send him
into Ionia, in order to assist the Persian generals in
suppressing the rebellion.  Artaphernes, however, was not so
easily deceived as his master, and plainly accused Histiaeus of
treachery when the latter arrived at Sardis.  "I will tell you
how the facts stand" said Artaphernes to Histiaeus; "it was you
who made the shoe, and Aristagoras has put it on."  Finding
himself unsafe at Sardis, he escaped to the island of Chios; but
he was regarded with suspicion by all parties.  At length he
obtained eight galleys from Lesbos, with which he sailed towards
Byzantium, and carried on piracies as well against the Grecian as
the barbarian vessels.  This unprincipled adventurer met with a
traitor's death.  Having landed on the coast of Mysia, he was
surprised by a Persian force and made prisoner.  Being carried to
Sardis, Artaphernes at once caused him to be crucified, and sent
his head to Darius, who ordered it to be honourably buried,
condemning the ignominious execution of the man who had once
saved the life of the Great King.

In the sixth year of the revolt (B.C. 495), when several Grecian
cities had already been taken by the Persians, Artaphernes laid
siege to Miletus by sea and by land.  A naval engagement took
place at Lade a small island off Miletus, which decided the fate
of the war.  The Samians deserted at the commencement of the
battle, and the Ionian fleet was completely defeated.  Miletus
was soon afterwards taken, and was treated with signal severity.
Most of the males were slain; and the few who escaped the sword
were carried with the women and children into captivity (B.C.
494).  The other Greek cities in Asia and the neighbouring
islands were treated with the same cruelty.  The islands of
Chios, Lesbos, and Tenedos were swept of their inhabitants; and
the Persian fleet sailed up to the Hellespont and Propontis,
carrying with it fire and sword.  The Athenian Miltiades only
escaped falling into the power of the Persians by a rapid flight
to Athens.

The subjugation of Ionia was now complete.  This was the third
time that the Asiatic Greeks had been conquered by a foreign
power:  first by the Lydian Croesus; secondly by the generals of
Cyrus; and lastly by those of Darius.  It was from the last that
they suffered most, and they never fully recovered their former

Darius was now at liberty to take vengeance upon the Athenians.
He appointed Mardonius to succeed Artaphernes as satrap in
western Asia, and he placed under his command a large armament,
with injunctions to bring to Susa those Athenians and Eretrians
who had insulted the authority of the Great King.  Mardonius,
after crossing the Hellespont, commenced his march through Thrace
and Macedonia, subduing, as he went along, the tribes which had
not yet submitted to the Persian power.  He ordered the fleet to
double the promontory of Mount Athos, and join the land forces at
the head of the gulf of Therma; but one of the hurricanes which
frequently blow off this dangerous coast overtook the Persian
fleet, destroyed 300 vessels and drowned or dashed upon the rocks
20,000 men.  Meantime the land forces of Mardonius had suffered
so much from an attack made upon them by a Thracian tribe, that
he could not proceed farther.  He led his army back across the
Hellespont, and returned to the Persian court covered with shame
and grief (B.C. 492).

The failure of this expedition did not shake the resolution of
Darius.  He began to make preparations for another attempt on a
still larger scale, and meantime sent heralds to most of the
Grecian states to demand from each earth and water as the symbol
of submission.  Such terror had the Persians inspired by their
recent conquest of Ionia, that a large number of the Grecian
cities at once complied with the demand; but the Athenians cast
the herald into a deep pit, and the Spartans threw him into a
well bidding him take earth and water from thence.

In the spring of B.C. 490 a large army and fleet were assembled
in Cilicia, and the command was given to Datis, a Median, and
Artaphernes, son of the satrap of Sardis of that name.  Warned by
the recent disaster of Mardonius in doubling the promontory of
Mount Athos, they resolved to sail straight across the AEgean to
Euboea, subduing on their way the Cyclades.  These islands
yielded a ready submission; and it was not till Datis and
Artaphernes reached Euboea that they encountered any resistance.
Eretria defended itself gallantly for six days, and repulsed the
Persians with loss; but on the seventh the gates were opened to
the besiegers by the treachery of two of its leading citizens.
The city was razed to the ground, and the inhabitants were put in
chains.  From Eretria the Persians crossed over to Attica, and
landed on the ever memorable plain of Marathon, a spot which had
been pointed out to them by the despot Hippias, who accompanied
the army.

As soon as the news of the fall of Eretria reached Athens, a
courier had been sent to Sparta to solicit assistance.  This was
promised; but the superstition of the Spartans prevented them
from setting out immediately, since it wanted a few days to the
full moon, and it was contrary to their religious customs to
commence a march during this interval.  Meantime the Athenians
had marched to Marathon, and were encamped upon the mountains
which surrounded the plain.  They were commanded, according to
the regular custom, by ten generals, one for each tribe, and by
the Polemarch, or third Archon, who down to this time continued
to be a colleague of the generals.  Among these the most
distinguished was Miltiades, who, though but lately a tyrant in
the Chersonesus, had shown such energy and ability, that the
Athenians had elected him one of their commanders upon the
approach of the Persian fleet.  Upon learning the answer which
the courier brought from Sparta, the ten generals were divided in
opinion.  Five of them were opposed to an immediate engagement
with the overwhelming number of Persians, and urged the
importance of waiting for the arrival of the Lacedaemonian
succours.  Miltiades and the remaining four contended that not a
moment should be lost in fighting the Persians, not only in order
to avail themselves of the present enthusiasm of the people, but
still more to prevent treachery from spreading among their ranks.
Callimachus, the Polemarch, yielded to the arguments of
Miltiades, and gave his vote for the battle.  The ten generals
commanded their army in rotation, each for one day; but they now
agreed to surrender to Miltiades their days of command, in order
to invest the whole power in a single person.  While the
Athenians were preparing for battle, they received unexpected
assistance from the little town or Plataea, in Boeotia.  Grateful
to the Athenians for the assistance which they had rendered them
against the Thebans, the whole force of Plataea, amounting to
1000 heavy-armed men, marched to the assistance of their allies
and joined them at Marathon.  The Athenian army numbered only
10,000 hoplites, or heavy-armed soldiers:  there were no archers
or cavalry, and only some slaves as light-armed attendants.  Of
the number of the Persian army we have no trustworthy account,
but the lowest estimate makes it consist of 110,000 men.

The plain of Marathon lies on the eastern coast of Attica, at the
distance of twenty-two miles from Athens by the shortest road.
it is in the form of a crescent, the horns of which consist of
two promontories running into the sea, and forming a semicircular
bay.  This plain is about six miles in length, and in its widest
or central part about two in breadth.  On the day of battle the
Persian army was drawn up along the plain about a mile from the
sea, and their fleet was ranged behind them on the beach.  The
Athenians occupied the rising ground above the plain, and
extended from one side of the plain to the other.  This
arrangement was necessary in order to protect their flanks by the
mountains on each side, and to prevent the cavalry from passing
round to attack them in rear.  But so large a breadth of ground
could not be occupied with a small a number of men without
weakening some portion of the line.  Miltiades, therefore, drew
up the troops in the centre in shallow files, and resolved to
rely for success upon the stronger and deeper masses of his
wings.  The right wing, which was the post of honour in a Grecian
army, was commanded by the Polemarch Callimachus; the hoplites
were arranged in the order of their tribes, so that the members
of the same tribe fought by each other's side; and at the extreme
left stood the Plataeans.

Miltiades, anxious to come to close quarters as speedily as
possible, ordered his soldiers to advance at a running step over
the mile of ground which separated them from the foe.  Both the
Athenian wings were successful, and drove the enemy before them
towards the shore and the marshes.  But the Athenian centre was
broken by the Persians, and compelled to take to flight.
Miltiades thereupon recalled his wings from pursuit, and charged
the Persian centre.  The latter could not withstand this combined
attack.  The rout now became general along the whole Persian
line; and they fled to their ships, pursued by the Athenians.

The Persians lost 6400 men in this memorable engagement:  of the
Athenians only 192 fell.  The aged tyrant Hippias is said to have
perished in the battle, and the brave Polemarch Callimachus was
also one of the slain.  The Persians embarked and sailed away to
Asia.  Their departure was hailed at Athens with one unanimous
burst of heartfelt joy.  Marathon became a magic word at Athens.
The Athenian people in succeeding ages always looked back upon
this day as the most glorious in their annals, and never tired of
hearing its praises sounded by their orators and poets.  And they
had reason to be proud of it.  It was the first time that the
Greeks had ever defeated the Persians in the field.  It was the
exploit of the Athenians alone.  It had saved not only Athens but
all Greece.  If the Persians had conquered at Marathon, Greece
must, in all likelihood, have become a Persian province; the
destinies of the world would have been changed; and oriental
despotism might still have brooded over the fairest countries of

The one hundred and ninety-two Athenians who had perished in the
battle were buried on the field, and over their remains a tumulus
or mound was erected, which may still be seen about half a mile
from the sea.

Shortly after the battle Miltiades requested of the Athenians a
fleet of seventy ships, without telling them the object of his
expedition, but only promising to enrich the state.  Such
unbounded confidence did the Athenians repose in the hero of
Marathon, that they at once complied with his demand.  This
confidence Miltiades abused.  In order to gratify a private
animosity against one of the leading citizens of Paros, he sailed
to this island and laid siege to the town.  The citizens repelled
all his attacks; and having received a dangerous injury on his
thigh, he was compelled to raise the siege and return to Athens.
Loud was the indignation against Miltiades on his return.  He was
accused by Xanthippus, the father of Pericles, of having deceived
the people, and was brought to trial.  His wound had already
begun to show symptoms of gangrene.  He was carried into court on
a couch, and there lay before the assembled judges, while his
friends pleaded on his behalf.  They could offer no excuse for
his recent conduct, but they reminded the Athenians of the
services he had rendered, and, begged them to spare the victor of
Marathon.  The judges were not insensible to this appeal; and
instead of condemning him to death as the accuser had demanded,
they commuted the penalty to a fine of fifty talents.  Miltiades
was unable immediately to raise this sum and died soon afterwards
of his wound.  The fine was subsequently paid by his son Cimon.
The melancholy end of Miltiades must not blind us to his offence.
He had grossly abused the public confidence, and deserved his
punishment.  The Athenians did not forget his services at
Marathon, and it was their gratitude towards him which alone
saved him from death.

Soon after the battle of Marathon a war broke out between Athens
and AEgina.  This war is of great importance in Grecian history,
since to it the Athenians were indebted for their navy, which
enabled them to save Greece at Salamis as they had already done
at Marathon.  AEgina was one of the chief maritime powers in
Greece; and accordingly Themistocles urged the Athenians to build
and equip a large and powerful fleet, without which it was
impossible for them to humble their rival.  There was at this
time a large surplus in the public treasury, arising from the
produce of the silver-mines at Laurium.  It had been recently
proposed to distribute this surplus among the Athenian citizens;
but Themistocles persuaded them to sacrifice their private
advantage to the public good, and to appropriate the money to
building a fleet of 200 ships.

The two leading citizens of Athens at this period were
Themistocles and Aristides.  These two eminent men formed a
striking contrast to each other.  Themistocles possessed
abilities of the most extraordinary kind; but they were marred by
a want of honesty.  Aristides was inferior to Themistocles in
ability, but was incomparably superior to him in honesty and
integrity.  His uprightness and justice were so universally
acknowledged that he received the surname of the "Just."
Themistocles was the leader of the democratical, and Aristides of
the conservative party at Athens.  After three or four years of
bitter rivalry, the two chiefs appealed to the ostracism, and
Aristides was banished (B.C. 483).  We are told that an
unlettered countryman gave his vote against Aristides at the
ostracism, because he was tired of hearing him always called the


AND PLATAEA, B.C. 480-479.

The defeat of the Persians at Marathon served only to increase
the resentment of Darius.  He now resolved to collect the whole
forces of his empire, and to lead them in person against Athens.
For three years busy preparations were made throughout his vast
dominions.  In the fourth year his attention was distracted by a
revolt of the Egyptians; and before he could reduce them to
subjection he was surprised by death, after a reign of 37 years
(B.C. 485).  Xerxes, the son and successor of Darius, had
received the education of an eastern despot, and been surrounded
with slaves from his cradle.  In person he was the tallest and
handsomest man amidst the vast hosts which he led against Greece;
but there was nothing in his mind to correspond to this fair
exterior.  His character was marked by faint-hearted timidity and
childish vanity.  Xerxes had not inherited his father's animosity
against Greece; but he was surrounded by men who urged him to
continue the enterprise.  Foremost among these was Mardonius, who
was eager to retrieve his reputation, and to obtain the conquered
country as a satrapy for himself after subduing Egypt (B.C. 484),
Xerxes began to make preparations for the invasion of Greece.
For four years the din of preparation sounded throughout Asia.
Troops were collected from every quarter of the Persian empire,
and were ordered to assemble in Cappadocia.  As many as forty-six
different nations composed the land-force, of various
complexions, languages, dresses, and arms.  Meantime Xerxes
ordered a bridge to be thrown across the Hellespont, that his
army might march from Asia into Europe:  and he likewise gave
directions that a canal should be cut through the isthmus of
Mount Athos, in order to avoid the necessity of doubling this
dangerous promontory, where the fleet of Mardonius had suffered
shipwreck.  The making of this canal, which was about a mile and
a half long employed a number of men for three years.

In the spring of B.C. 480 Xerxes set out from Sardis with his
vast host.  Upon reaching Abydos on the Hellespont the army
crossed over to Europe by the bridge of boats.  Xerxes surveyed
the scene from a marble throne.  His heart swelled within him at
the sight of such a vast assemblage of human beings; but his
feelings of pride and pleasure soon gave way to sadness, and he
burst into tears at the reflection that in a hundred years not
one of them would be alive.  Xerxes continued his march through
Europe along the coast of Thrace.  Upon arriving at the spacious
plain of Doriscus, which is traversed by the river Hebrus, he
resolved to number his forces.  He found that the whole armament,
both military and naval, consisted of 2,317,610 men.  In his
march from Doriscus to Thermopylae he received a still further
accession of strength; and accordingly when he reached
Thermopylae the land and sea forces amounted to 2,641,610
fighting men.  The attendants are said to have been more in
number than the fighting men; but if they were only equal, the
number of persons who accompanied Xerxes to Thermopylae reaches
the astounding figure of 5,283,220!  The number is quite
incredible; but though the exact number of the invading army
cannot be determined, we may safely conclude, from all the
circumstances of the case, that it was the largest ever assembled
at any period of history.

From Doriscus Xerxes his march along the coast through Thrace and
Macedonia.  The principal cities through which he passed had to
furnish a day's meal for the immense host, and for this purpose
had made preparations many months before-hand.  The cost of
feeding such a multitude brought many cities to the brink of
ruin.  At Acanthus his fleet sailed through the isthmus of Athos
and after doubling the promontories of Sithonia and Pallene
joined him at the city of Therma, better known by its later name
of Thessalonica.  Thence he continued his march through the
southern part of Macedonia and Thessaly, meeting with no
opposition till he reached the celebrated pass of Thermopylae.

The mighty preparations of Xerxes had been no secret in Greece;
and during the preceding winter a congress of the Grecian states
had been summoned by the Spartans and Athenians to meet at the
isthmus of Corinth.  But so great was the terror inspired by the
countless hosts of Xerxes that many of the Grecian states at once
tendered their submission to him, and others refused to take any
part in the congress.  The only people, north of the isthmus of
Corinth, who remained faithful to the cause of Grecian liberty,
were the Athenians and Phocians, and the inhabitants of the small
Boeotian towns of Plataea and Thespiae.  The other people in
northern Greece were either partisans of the Persians, like the
Thebans, or were unwilling to make any great sacrifices for the
preservation of their independence.  In Peloponnesus, the
powerful city of Argos and the Achaeans stood aloof.  From the
more distant members of the Hellenic race no assistance was
obtained.  Gelon, the ruler of Syracuse, offered to send a
powerful armament, provided the command of the allied forces was
intrusted to him; but the envoys did not venture to accept a
proposal which would have placed both Sparta and Athens under the
control of a Sicilian tyrant.

The desertion of the cause of Grecian independence by so many of
the Greeks did not shake the resolution of Sparta and of Athens.
The Athenians, especially, set a noble example of an enlarged
patriotism.  They became reconciled to the AEginetans, and thus
gained for the common cause the powerful navy of their rival.
They readily granted to the Spartans the supreme command of the
forces by sea as well as by land, although they furnished two-
thirds of the vessels of the entire fleet.  Their illustrious
citizen Themistocles was the soul of the congress.  He sought to
enkindle in the other Greeks some portion of the ardour and
energy which he had succeeded in breathing into the Athenians.

The Greeks determined to make a stand at the pass of Thermopylae,
which forms the entrance from northern into southern Greece.
This pass lies between Mount OEta and the sea.  It is about a
mile in length.  At each of its extremities the mountains
approach so near the sea as to leave barely room for the passage
of a single carriage.  The northern, or, to speak more properly,
the western Gate, was close to the town of Anthela, where the
Amphictyonic council held its autumnal meetings; while the
southern, or the eastern Gate, was near the Locrian town of
Alpeni.  These narrow entrances were called Pylae, or the Gates.
The space between the gates was wider and more open, and was
distinguished by its hot springs, from which the pass derived the
name of Thermopylae, or the "Hot-Gates."  The island of Euboea is
here separated from the mainland by a narrow strait, which in one
part is only two miles and a half in breadth; and accordingly it
is easy, by defending this part of the sea with a fleet, to
prevent an enemy from landing troops at the southern end of the

The Grecian fleet, under the command of the Spartan Eurybiades,
took up its station off that portion of the northern coast of
Euboea which faces Magnesia and the entrance to the Thessalian
gulf and which was called Artemisium, from a neighbouring temple
of Artemis (Diana).  It was, however, only a small land-force
that was sent to the defence of Thermopylae.  When the arrival of
Xerxes at Therma became known, the Greeks were upon the point of
celebrating the Olympic games, and the festival of the Carnean
Apollo, which was observed with great solemnity at Sparta and in
other Doric states.  The Peloponnesians therefore sent forward
only 300 Spartans and 3000 hoplites from other Peloponnesian
states, under the command of the Spartan king Leonidas, a force
which they thought would be sufficient to maintain the pass till
the festivals were over.  In his march northwards Leonidas
received additions from the Thespians, Phocians, and Locrians, so
that he had under his command at Thermopylae about 7000 men.

Meanwhile Xerxes had arrived within sight of Thermopylae.  He had
heard that a handful of desperate men, commanded by a Spartan,
had determined to dispute his passage, but he refused to believe
the news.  He was still more astonished when a horseman, whom he
had sent to reconnoitre, brought back word that he had seen
several Spartans outside the wall in front of the pass, some
amusing themselves with gymnastic exercises, and others combing
their long hair.  In great perplexity, he sent for the exiled
Spartan king Demaratus, who had accompanied him from Persia, and
asked him the meaning of such madness.  Demaratus replied, that
the Spartans would defend the pass to the death, and that it was
their practice to dress their heads with peculiar care when they
were going to battle.  Later writers relate that Xerxes sent to
them to deliver up their arms.  Leonidas desired him "to come and
take them."  One of the Spartans being told that "the Persian
host was so prodigious that their arrows would conceal the sun:"
--"So much the better" (he replied), "we shall then fight in the

At length, upon the fifth day, Xerxes ordered a chosen body of
Medes to advance against the presumptuous foes and bring them
into his presence.  But their superior numbers were of no avail
in such a narrow space, and they were kept at bay by the long
spears and steady ranks of the Greeks.  After the combat had
lasted a long time with heavy loss to the Medes, Xerxes ordered
his ten thousand "Immortals," the flower of the Persian army, to
advance.  But they were as unsuccessful as the Medes.  Xerxes
beheld the repulse of his troops from a lofty throne which had
been provided for him, and was seen to leap thrice from his seat
in an agony of fear or rage.

On the following day the attack was renewed, but with no better
success:  and Xerxes was beginning to despair of forcing his way
through the pass, when a Malian, of the name of Ephialtes,
betrayed to the Persian king that there was an unfrequented path
across Mount OEta, ascending on the northern side of the mountain
and descending on the southern side near the termination of the
pass.  Overjoyed at this discovery, a strong detachment of
Persians was ordered to follow the traitor.  Meantime Leonidas
and his troops had received ample notice of the impending danger.
During the night deserters from the enemy had brought him the
news; and their intelligence was confirmed by his own scouts on
the hills.  His resolution was at once taken.  As a Spartan he
was bound to conquer or to die in the post assigned to him; and
he was the more ready to sacrifice his life, since an oracle had
declared that either Sparta itself or a Spartan king must perish
by the Persian arms.  His three hundred comrades were fully equal
to the same heroism which actuated their King; and the seven
hundred Thespians resolved to share the fate of this gallant
band.  He allowed the, rest of the allies to retire, with the
exception of four hundred Boeotians, whom he retained as
hostages.  Xerxes delayed his attack till the middle of the day,
when it was expected that the detachment sent across the mountain
would arrive at the rear of the pass.  But Leonidas and his
comrades, only anxious to sell their lives as dearly as possible,
did not wait to receive the attack of the Persians, but advanced
into the open space in front of the pass, and charged the enemy
with desperate valour.  Numbers of the Persians were slain; many
were driven into the neighbouring sea; and others again were
trampled to death by the vast hosts behind them.  As long as the
Greeks could maintain their ranks they repelled every attack; but
when their spears were broken, and they had only their swords
left, the enemy began to press in between them.  Leonidas was one
of the first that fell, and around his body the battle raged
fiercer than ever.  The Persians made the greatest efforts to
obtain possession of it; but four times they were driven back by
the Greeks with great slaughter.  At length, thinned in numbers,
and exhausted by fatigue and wounds, this noble band retired
within the pass, and seated themselves on a hillock.  Meanwhile
the Persian detachment, which had been sent across the mountains,
began to enter the pass from the south.  The Spartan heroes were
now surrounded on every side, overwhelmed with a shower of
missiles, and killed to a man.

On the hillock, where the Greeks made their last stand, a marble
lion was set up in honour of Leonidas.  Another monument, erected
near the spot, contained the memorable inscription:--

  "Go, tell the Spartans, thou that passest by,
  That here obedient to their laws we lie."

While Leonidas had been fighting at Thermopylae, the Greek fleet
had also been engaged with the Persians at Artemisium.  The
Persian fleet set sail from the gulf of Therma, and arrived in
one day at almost the southern corner of Magnesia.  In this
position they were overtaken by a sudden hurricane, which blew
upon the shore with irresistible fury.  For three days and three
nights the tempest raged without intermission; and when calm at
length returned, the shore was seen strewed for many miles with
wrecks and corpses.  At least four hundred ships of war were
destroyed, together with a countless number of transports,
stores, and treasures.  The Greek fleet had been seized with a
panic terror at the approach of the Persians, and retreated to
Chalcis in the narrowest part of the Euboean straits; but upon
hearing of the disaster of the Persian fleet, they took courage,
and sailed back with the utmost speed to their former station at
Artemisium.  Being now encouraged to attack the enemy, they
gained some success.  On the following night another terrific
storm burst upon the Persians.  All night long it blew upon the
Thessalian coast at Aphetae, where the Persian ships were
stationed, thus causing little inconvenience to the Greeks upon
the opposite shore.  Notwithstanding these losses, the Persian
fleet still had a vast superiority of numbers, and determined to
offer battle to the Greeks.  Quitting the Thessalian coast, they
sailed towards Artemisium in the form of a crescent.  The Greeks
kept near the shore, to prevent the Persians from bringing their
whole fleet into action.  The battle raged furiously the whole
day, and each side fought with determined valour.  Both parties
suffered severely; and though the Persians lost a greater number
of ships and men, yet so many of the Greek vessels were disabled
that they found it would be impossible to renew the combat.
Under these circumstances the Greek commanders saw that it would
be necessary to retreat; and their determination was hastened by
the news which they now received, that Leonidas and his
companions had fallen, and that Xerxes was master of the pass of
Thermopylae.  Having sailed through the Euboean strait, the fleet
doubled the promontory of Sunium, and did not stop till it
reached the island of Salamis.

Meanwhile the Peloponnesians had abandoned Attica and the
adjoining states to their fate, whilst they strained every nerve
to secure themselves by fortifying the isthmus of Corinth.  The
Athenians, relying upon the march of a Peloponnesian army into
Boeotia, had taken no measures for the security of their families
and property, and beheld with terror and dismay the barbarian
host in full march towards their city.  In six days it was
calculated Xerxes would be at Athens--a short space to remove the
population of a whole city:  but fear and necessity work wonders.
Before the six days had elapsed, all who were willing to abandon
their homes had been safely transported, some to AEgina, and
others to Troezen in Peloponnesus; but many could not be induced
to proceed farther than Salamis.  It was necessary for
Themistocles to use all his art and all his eloquence on this
occasion.  The oracle at Delphi had told the Athenians that "the
divine Salamis would make women childless,"--yet, "when all was
lost, a wooden wall should still shelter the Athenians."
Themistocles told his countrymen that these words clearly
indicated a fleet and a naval victory as the only means of
safety.  Some however gave to the words another meaning; and a
few, especially among the aged and the poor, resolved to shut
themselves up in the Acropolis, and to fortify its accessible or
western front with barricades of timber.

On his march towards Athens, Xerxes sent a detachment of his army
to take and plunder Delphi.  But this attempt proved
unsuccessful.  The god of the most renowned oracle of the Grecian
world vindicated at once the majesty of his sanctuary and the
truth of his predictions.  As the Persians climbed the rugged
path at the foot of Mount Parnassus, leading up to the shrine,
thunder was heard to roll, and two crags, suddenly detaching
themselves from the mountain, rolled down upon the Persians, and
spread dismay and destruction in their ranks, Seized with a
sudden panic, they turned and fled, pursued, as they said, by two
warriors of superhuman size and prowess, who had assisted the
Delphians in defending their temple.

On arriving before Athens, Xerxes found the Acropolis occupied by
a handful of desperate citizens, who made a brave resistance; but
they were overpowered and put to the sword.  The temples and
houses on the Acropolis were pillaged and burnt; and Xerxes thus
became undisputed master of Athens.

About the same time the Persian fleet arrived in the bay of
Phalerum.  Its strength is not accurately known, but it must have
exceeded 1000 vessels.  The combined Grecian fleet at Salamis
consisted of 366 ships, of which 200 were Athenian.

At this critical juncture dissension reigned in the Grecian
fleet.  In the council of war which had been summoned by
Eurybiades the Spartan commander, Themistocles urged the
assembled chiefs to remain at Salamis, and give battle to the
Persians in the narrow straits, where the superior numbers of the
Persians would be of less consequence.  The Peloponnesian
commanders, on the other hand, were anxious that the fleet should
be removed to the isthmus of Corinth, and thus be put in
communication with their land-forces.  The council came to a vote
in favour of retreat; but Themistocles prevailed upon Eurybiades
to convene another assembly upon the following day.  When the
council met, the Peloponnesian commanders loudly expressed their
dissatisfaction at seeing a debate re-opened which they had
deemed concluded.  Adimantus, the Corinthian admiral broke out
into open rebukes and menaces.  "Themistocles," he exclaimed,
"those who rise at the public games before the signal are
whipped."  "True," replied Themistocles; "but they who lag behind
it never win a crown."  Another incident in this discussion has
been immortalized by Plutarch.  Eurybiades, incensed by the
language of Themistocles, lifted up his stick to strike him,
whereupon the Athenian exclaimed, "Strike, but hear me!"
Themistocles repeated his arguments and entreaties; and at length
threatened that he and the Athenians would sail away to Italy and
there found a new city, if the Peloponnesians still determined to
retreat.  Eurybiades now gave way and issued orders for the fleet
to remain and fight at Salamis; but the Peloponnesians obeyed the
order with reluctance.  A third council was summoned and
Themistocles, perceiving that the decision of the assembly would
be against him, determined to effect his object by stratagem.  He
secretly despatched a trusty slave with a message to Xerxes,
representing the dissensions which prevailed in the Grecian
fleet, and how easy a matter it would be to surround and vanquish
an armament both small and disunited.  Xerxes readily adopted the
suggestion, and ordered his captains to close up the straits of
Salamis at both ends during the night.  On the council assembling
in the morning, Aristides arrived with the news that the Grecian
fleet was completely surrounded by that of the Persians, and that
retreat was no longer possible.  As the veil of night rolled
gradually away, the Persian fleet was discovered stretching as
far as the eye could reach along the coast of Attica.  The
Grecian fleet, being concentrated in the harbour of Salamis, was
thus surrounded by the Persians.  Xerxes had caused a lofty
throne to be erected upon one of the projecting declivities of
Mount AEgaleos, opposite the harbour of Salamis, whence be could
survey the combat, and stimulate by his presence the courage of
his men.

As a battle was now inevitable the Grecian commanders lost no
time in making preparations for the encounter.  The Greek seamen
embarked with alacrity, encouraging one another to deliver their
country, their wives, and children, and the temples of their
gods, from the grasp of the barbarians.  History has preserved to
us but few details of the engagement.  The Persian fleet, with
the exception of some of the Ionic contingents, fought with
courage.  But the very numbers on which they so confidently
relied, proved one of the chief causes of their defeat.  Too
crowded either to advance or to retreat, their oars broken or
impeded by collision with one another, their fleet lay like an
inert and lifeless mass upon the water, and fell an easy prey to
the Greeks.  A single incident will illustrate the terror and
confusion which reigned among the Persians.  Artemisia, queen of
Halicarnassus in Caria, distinguished herself in it by deeds of
daring bravery.  At length she turned and fled, pursued by an
Athenian galley.  Full in her course lay the vessel of a Carian
prince.  Instead of avoiding, she struck and sunk it, sending
her countryman and all his crew to the bottom.  The captain of
the Athenian galley, believing from this act that she was a
deserter from the Persian cause, suffered her to escape.  Xerxes,
who from his lofty throne beheld the feat of the Halicarnassian
queen, but who imagined that the sunken ship belonged to the
Greeks, was filled with admiration at her courage, and exclaimed
--"My men are become women, my women men!"

Two hundred of the Persian ships were destroyed and sunk when
night put an end to the engagement.  But notwithstanding this
loss the fleet was still formidable by its numbers.  The Greeks
themselves did not regard the victory as decisive, and prepared
to renew the combat.  But the pusillanimity of Xerxes relieved
them from all further anxiety.  He became alarmed for his own
personal safety; and his whole care was now centred on securing
his retreat by land.  The best troops were disembarked from the
ships, and marched towards the Hellespont, in order to secure the
bridge, whilst the fleet itself was ordered to make for Asia.
These dispositions of Xerxes were prompted by Mardonius.  He
represented to his master that the defeat, after all, was but
slight; that having attained one of the great objects of the
expedition by the capture of Athens, he might now retire with
honour, and even with glory; and that for the rest he (Mardonius)
would undertake to complete the conquest of Greece with 300,000
men.  While the Persian fleet sailed towards Asia, Xerxes set out
on his homeward march.  In Thessaly Mardonius selected the
300,000 men with whom he proposed to conclude the war; but as
autumn was now approaching, he resolved to postpone all further
operations till the spring.

After forty-five days' march from Attica, Xerxes again reached
the shores of the Hellespont, with a force greatly diminished by
famine and pestilence.  On the Hellespont he found his fleet, but
the bridge had been washed away by storms.  Landed on the shores
of Asia, the Persian army at length obtained abundance of
provisions, and contracted new maladies by the sudden change from
privation to excess.  Thus terminated this mighty but
unsuccessful expedition.

Greece owed its salvation to one man--Themistocles, This was
virtually admitted by the leaders of the other Grecian states,
when they assembled to assign the prizes of wisdom and conduct.
Upon the altar of Poseidon, at the isthmus of Corinth, each chief
deposited a ticket inscribed with two names, of those whom he
considered entitled to the first and second prizes.  But in this
adjudication vanity and self-love defeated their own objects.
Each commander had put down his own name for the first prize; for
the second, a great majority preponderated in favour of
Themistocles.  From the Spartans, also, Themistocles received the
honours due to his merit.  A crown of olive was conferred upon
him, together with one of the most splendid chariots which the
city could produce.

On the very same day on which the Persians were defeated at
Salamis the Sicilian Greeks also obtained a victory over the
Carthaginians.  There is reason to believe that the invasion of
Sicily by the Carthaginians was concerted with Xerxes, and that
the simultaneous attach on two distinct Grecian peoples, by two
immense armaments, was not merely the result of chance.  Gelon,
the powerful ruler of Syracuse, defeated Hamilcar, the
Carthaginian general, with the loss it is said of 150,000 men.

In the spring of B.C. 479 Mardonius prepared to open the
campaign.  He was not without hopes of inducing the Athenians to
join the Persian alliance, and he despatched Alexander, king of
Macedon, to conciliate the Athenians, now partially
re-established in their dilapidated city.  His offers on the part
of the Persians were of the most seductive kind; but the
Athenians dismissed him with a positive refusal, whilst to the
Lacedaemonians they protested that no temptations, however great,
should ever induce them to desert the common cause of Greece and
freedom.  In return for this disinterested conduct all they asked
was that a Peloponnesian army should be sent into Boeotia for the
defence of the Attic frontier:  a request which the Spartan
envoys promised to fulfil.  No sooner, however, had they returned
into their own country than this promise was completely

When Mardonius was informed that the Athenians had rejected his
proposal, he immediately marched against Athens, accompanied by
all his Grecian allies; and in May or June, B.C. 479, about ten
months after the retreat of Xerxes, the Persians again occupied
that city.  With feelings of bitter indignation against their
faithless allies, the Athenians saw themselves once more
compelled to remove to Salamis.  Mardonius took advantage of his
situation to endeavour once more to win them to his alliance.
Through a Hellespontine Greek, the same favourable conditions
were again offered to them, but were again refused.  One voice
alone, that of the senator Lycidas, broke the unanimity of the
assembly.  But his opposition cost him his life.  He and his
family were stoned to death by the excited populace.  In this
desperate condition the Athenians sent ambassadors to the
Spartans to remonstrate against their breach of faith, and to
intimate that necessity might at length compel them to listen to
the proposals of the enemy.  The Spartans became alarmed. That
very night 5000 citizens, each attended by seven Helots, were
despatched to the frontiers; and these were shortly followed by
5000 Lacedaemonian Perioeci, each attended by one light-armed
Helot.  Never before had the Spartans sent so large a force into
the field.  Their example was followed by other Peloponnesian
cities; and the Athenian envoys returned to Salamis with the
joyful news that a large army was preparing to march against the
enemy, under the command of Pausanias, who acted as regent for
the infant son of Leonidas.

Mardonius, on learning the approach of the Lacedaemonians,
abandoned Attica and crossed into Boeotia.  He finally took up a
position on the left bank of the Asopus, and not far from the
town of Plataea.  Here he caused a camp to be constructed of ten
furlongs square, and fortified with barricades and towers.
Meanwhile the Grecian army continued to receive reinforcements
from the different states, and by the time it reached Boeotia, it
formed a grand total of about 110,000 men.  After several days'
manoeuvring a general battle took place near Plataea.  The light-
armed undisciplined Persians, whose bodies were unprotected by
armour, maintained a very unequal combat against the serried
ranks, the long spears, and the mailed bodies of the Spartan
phalanx.  Mardonius, at the head of his body-guard of 1000 picked
men, and conspicuous by his white charger, was among the foremost
in the fight, till struck down by the hand of a Spartan.  The
fall of their general was the signal for flight to the Persians,
already wearied and disheartened by the fruitless contest; nor
did they once stop till they lad again crossed the Asopus and
reached their fortified camp.  The glory of having defeated the
Persians at Plataea rests with the Lacedaemonians, since the
Athenians were engaged in another part of the field with the
Thebans.  After repulsing the Thebans, the Athenians joined the
Lacedaemonians, who had pursued the Persians as far as their
fortified camp.  Upon the arrival of the Athenians the barricades
were stormed and carried, after a gallant resistance on the part
of the Persians.  The camp became a scene of the most horrible
carnage.  The Persian loss was immense, while that of the Greeks
seems not to have exceeded 1300 or 1400 men.

It remained to bury the dead and divide the booty, and so great
was the task that ten days were consumed in it.  The booty was
ample and magnificent.  Gold and silver coined, as well as in
plate and trinkets, rich vests and carpets, ornamented arms,
horses, camels--in a word, all the magnificence of Eastern
luxury.  The failure of the Persian expedition was completed by
the destruction of their naval armament.  Laotychides, the
Spartan admiral, having sailed across the AEgean, found the
Persian fleet at Mycale a promontory of Asia Minor near Miletus.
Their former reverses seem completely to have discouraged the
Persians from hazarding another naval engagement.  The ships were
hauled ashore and surrounded with a rampart, whilst an army of
60,000 Persians lined the coast for their defence.  The Greeks
landed on the very day on which the battle of Plataea was fought.
A supernatural presentiment of that decisive victory, conveyed by
a herald's staff which floated over the AEgean from the shores of
Greece, is said to have pervaded the Grecian ranks at Mycale as
they marched to the attack.  The Persians did not long resist:
they turned their backs and fled to their fortifications, pursued
by the Greeks, who entered them almost simultaneously.  A large
number of the Persians perished; and the victory was rendered
still more decisive by the burning of the fleet.

The Grecian fleet now sailed towards the Hellespont with the view
of destroying the bridge; but hearing that it no longer existed,
Leotychides departed homewards with the Peloponnesian vessels.
Xanthippus however, the Athenian commander, seized the
opportunity to recover from the Persians the Thracian Chersonese,
which had long been an Athenian possession; and proceeded to
blockade Sestos, the key of the strait.  This city surrendered in
the autumn, after a protracted siege, whereupon the Athenians
returned home, carrying with them the cables of the bridge across
the Hellespont, which were afterwards preserved in the Acropolis
as a trophy.



The Athenians, on their return to Attica, after the defeat of the
Persians, found their city ruined and their country desolate.
They began to rebuild their city on a larger scale than before,
and to fortify it with a wall.  Those allies to whom the
increasing maritime power of Athens was an object of suspicion,
and especially the AEginetans, to whom it was more particularly
formidable, beheld her rising fortifications with dismay.  They
endeavoured to inspire the Lacedaemonians with their fears, and
urged them to arrest the work.  But though Sparta shared the
jealousy of the allies, she could not with any decency interfere
by force to prevent a friendly city from exercising a right
inherent in all independent states.  She assumed therefore the
hypocritical garb of an adviser and counsellor.  Concealing her
jealousy under the pretence of zeal for the common interests of
Greece, she represented to the Athenians that, in the event of
another Persian invasion, fortified towns would serve the enemy
for camps and strongholds, as Thebes had done in the last war;
and proposed that the Athenians should not only desist from
completing their own fortifications, but help to demolish those
which already existed in other towns.

The object of the proposal was too transparent to deceive so
acute a statesman as Themistocles.  Athens was not yet, however,
in a condition to incur the danger of openly rejecting it; and he
therefore advised the Athenians to dismiss the Spartan envoys
with the assurance that they would send ambassadors to Sparta to
explain their views.  He then caused himself to be appointed one
of these ambassadors; and setting off straightway for Sparta,
directed his colleagues to linger behind as long as possible.  At
Sparta, the absence of his colleagues, at which he affected to be
surprised, afforded him an excuse for not demanding an audience
of the ephors.  During the interval thus gained, the whole
population of Athens, of both sexes and every age, worked day and
night at the walls, which, when the other ambassadors at length
arrived at Sparta, had attained a height sufficient to afford a
tolerable defence.  Meanwhile the suspicions of the Spartans had
been more than once aroused by messages from the AEginetans
respecting the progress of the walls.  Themistocles, however,
positively denied their statements; and urged the Spartans to
send messengers of their own to Athens in order to learn the true
state of affairs, at the same time instructing the Athenians to
detain them as hostages for the safety of himself and colleagues.
When there was no longer any motive for concealment, Themistocles
openly avowed the progress of the works, and his intention of
securing the independence of Athens, and enabling her to act for
herself.  The walls being now too far advanced to be easily
taken, the Spartans found themselves compelled to acquiesce, and
the works were completed without further hindrance.

Having thus secured the city from all danger of an immediate
attack, Themistocles pursued his favourite project of rendering
Athens the greatest maritime and commercial power of Greece.  He
erected a town round the harbour of Piraeus, distant between four
and five miles from Athens, and enclosed it with a wall as large
in extent as the city itself, but of vastly greater height and
thickness.  Meanwhile an event occurred which secured more firmly
than ever the maritime supremacy of Athens, by transferring to
her the command of the allied fleet.

In the year after the battle of Plataea a fleet had been fitted
out and placed under the command of the Spartan regent,
Pausanias, in order to carry on the war against the Persians.
After delivering most of the Grecian towns in Cyprus from the
Persians, this armament sailed up the Bosporus and laid siege to
Byzantium, which was garrisoned by a large Persian force.  The
town surrendered after a protracted siege; but it was during this
expedition that the conduct of the Spartan commander struck a
fatal blow at the interests of his country.

The immense booty, as well as the renown, which Pausanias had
acquired at Plataea, had filled him with pride and ambition.
After the capture of Byzantium he despatched a letter to Xerxes,
offering to marry the king's daughter, and to bring Sparta and
the rest of Greece under his dominion.  Xerxes was highly
delighted with this letter, and sent a reply in which he urged
Pausanias to pursue his project night and day, and promised to
supply him with all the money and troops that might be needful
for its execution.  But the childish vanity of Pausanias betrayed
his plot before it was ripe for execution.  Elated by the
confidence of Xerxes, and by the money with which he was lavishly
supplied, he acted as if he had already married the Great King's
daughter.  He assumed the Persian dress; he made a progress
through Thrace, attended by Persian and Egyptian guards; and
copied, in the luxury of his table and the dissoluteness of his
manners, the example of his adopted country.  Above all, he
offended the allies by his haughty reserve and imperiousness.
His designs were now too manifest to escape attention.  His
proceedings reached the ears of the Spartans, who sent out Dorcis
to supersede him.  Disgusted by the insolence of Pausanias, the
Ionians serving in the combined Grecian fleet addressed
themselves to Aristides, whose manners formed a striking contrast
to those of the Spartan leader, and begged him to assume the
command.  This request was made precisely at the time when
Pausanias was recalled; and accordingly, when Dorcis arrived, he
found Aristides in command of the combined fleet (B.C. 478).

This event was not a mere empty question about a point of honour.
It was a real revolution, terminated by a solemn league, of which
Athens was to be the head.  Aristides took the lead in the
matter, for which his proverbial justice and probity eminently
qualified him.  The league obtained the name of "the Confederacy
of Delos," from its being arranged that deputies of the allies
belonging to it should meet periodically for deliberation in the
temple of Apollo and Artemis (Diana) in that island.  Each state
was assessed in a certain contribution, either of money or ships,
as proposed by the Athenians and ratified by the synod.  The
assessment was intrusted to Aristides, whose impartiality was
universally applauded.  Of the details, however, we only know
that the first assessment amounted to 460 talents (about 106,000L
sterling), that certain officers called Hellenotamiae were
appointed by the Athenians to collect and administer the
contributions, and that Delos was the treasury.

Such was the origin of the Confederacy of Delos.  Soon after its
formation Aristides was succeeded in the command of the combined
fleet by Cimon, the son of Miltiades.

Pausanias, on his return to Sparta, seems to have been acquitted
of any definite charges; but he continued his correspondence with
Persia, and an accident at length afforded convincing proofs of
his guilt.  A favourite slave, to whom he had intrusted a letter
to the Persian satrap at Sardis, observed with dismay that none
of the messengers employed in this service had ever returned.
Moved by these fears, he broke the seal and read the letter, and
finding his suspicions of the fate that awaited him confirmed, he
carried the document to the ephors.  But in ancient states the
testimony of a slave was always regarded with suspicion.  The
ephors refused to believe the evidence offered to them unless
confirmed by their own ears.  For this purpose they directed him
to plant himself as a suppliant in a sacred grove near Cape
Taenarus, in a hut behind which two of their body might conceal
themselves.  Pausanias, as they had expected, anxious at the step
taken by his slave, hastened to the spot to question him about
it.  The conversation which ensued, and which was overheard by
the ephors, rendered the guilt of Pausanias no longer doubtful.
They now determined to arrest him on his return to Sparta.  They
met him in the street near the temple of Athena Chalcioecus (of
the Brazen House), when Pausanias, either alarmed by his guilty
conscience, or put on his guard by a secret signal from one of
the ephors, turned and fled to the temple, where he took refuge
in a small chamber belonging to the building.  From this
sanctuary it was unlawful to drag him; but the ephors caused the
doors to be built up and the roof to be removed, and his own
mother is said to have placed the first stone at the doors.  When
at the point of death from starvation, he was carried from the
sanctuary before he polluted it with his corpse.  Such was the
end of the victor of Plataea.  After his death proofs were
discovered among his papers that Themistocles was implicated in
his guilt.  But in order to follow the fortunes of the Athenian
statesman, it is necessary to take a glance at the internal
history of Athens.

The ancient rivalry between Themistocles and Aristides had been
in a good degree extinguished by the danger which threatened
their common country during the Persian wars.  Aristides had
since abandoned his former prejudices, and was willing to conform
to many of the democratical innovations of his rival.  The effect
of this was to produce, soon after their return to Attica, a
still further modification of the constitution of Clisthenes.
The Thetes the lowest of the four classes of Athenian citizens,
were declared eligible for the magistracy, from which they had
been excluded by the laws of Solon.  Thus not only the
archonship, but consequently the Council of Areopagus, was thrown
open to them; and, strange to say, this reform was proposed by
Aristides himself.

Nevertheless party spirit still ran high at Athens.  Cimon and
Alcmaeon were violent opponents of Themistocles, and of their
party Aristides was still the head.  The popularity of Aristides
was never greater than at the present time, owing not only to the
more liberal spirit which he exhibited, but also to his great
services in establishing the Confederacy of Delos.  Themistocles
had offended the Athenians by his ostentation and vanity.  He was
continually boasting of his services to the state; but worse than
all this, his conduct was stained with positive guilt.  Whilst,
at the head of an Athenian squadron, he was sailing among the
Greek islands for the ostensible purpose of executing justice,
there is little room to doubt that he corrupted its very source
by accepting large sums of money from the cities which he
visited.  Party spirit at length reached such a height that it
was found necessary to resort to ostracism, and Themistocles was
condemned to a temporary banishment (B.C. 471).  He retired to
Argos, where he was residing when the Spartans called upon the
Athenians to prosecute their great statesman before a synod of
the allies assembled at Sparta, on the ground of treasonable
correspondence with Persia.  Accordingly joint envoys were sent
from Athens and Sparta to arrest him (B.C. 466).  Themistocles
avoided the impending danger by flying from Argos to Corcyra.
The Corcyraeans, however, not daring to shelter him, he passed
over to the continent; where, being still pursued, he was forced
to seek refuge at the court of Admetus, king of the Molossians,
though the latter was his personal enemy.  Fortunately, Admetus
happened to be from home.  The forlorn condition of Themistocles
excited the compassion of the wife of the Molossian king, who
placed her child in his arms, and bade him seat himself on the
hearth as a suppliant.  As soon as the king arrived, Themistocles
explained his peril, and adjured him by the sacred laws of
hospitality not to take vengeance upon a fallen foe.  Admetus
accepted his appeal, and raised him from the hearth; he refused
to deliver him up to his pursuers, and at last only dismissed him
on his own expressed desire to proceed to Persia.  After many
perils, Themistocles succeeded in reaching in safety the coast of
Asia.  Artaxerxes, the son of Xerxes, was now upon the throne of
Persia, and to him Themistocles hastened to announce himself.
The king was delighted at his arrival, and treated him with the
greatest distinction.  In a year's time, Themistocles, having
acquired a sufficient knowledge of the Persian language to be
able to converse in it, entertained Artaxerxes with magnificent
schemes for the subjugation of Greece.  Artaxerxes loaded him
with presents, gave him a Persian wife, and appointed Magnesia, a
town not far from the Ionian coast, as his place of residence.
after living there some time he was carried off by disease at the
age of sixty-five, without having realised, or apparently
attempted, any of those plans with which he had dazzled the
Persian monarch.  Rumour ascribed his death to poison, which he
took of his own accord, from a consciousness of his inability to
perform his promises; but this report, which was current in the
time of Thucydides, is rejected by that historian.

Aristides died about four years after the banishment of
Themistocles.  The common accounts of his poverty are probably
exaggerated, and seem to have been founded on the circumstances
of a public funeral, and of handsome donations made to his three
children by the state.  But whatever his property may have been,
it is at least certain that he did not acquire or increase it by
unlawful means; and not even calumny has ventured to assail his
well-earned title of THE JUST.

On the death of Aristides, Cimon became the undisputed leader of
the conservative party at Athens.  Cimon was generous, affable,
magnificent; and, notwithstanding his political views, of
exceedingly popular manners.  He had inherited the military
genius of his father, and was undoubtedly the greatest commander
of his time.  He employed the vast wealth acquired in his
expeditions in adorning Athens and gratifying his fellow-
citizens.  It has been already mentioned that he succeeded
Aristides in the command of the allied fleet.  His first exploits
were the capture of Eion on the Strymon, and the reduction of the
island of Scyros (B.C. 476).  A few years afterwards we find the
first symptoms of discontent among the members of the Confederacy
of Delos.  Naxos, one of the confederate islands, and the largest
of the Cyclades, revolted in B.C. 466, probably from a feeling of
the growing oppressiveness of the Athenian headship.  It was
immediately invested by the confederate fleet, reduced, and made
tributary to Athens.  This was another step towards dominion
gained by the Athenians, whose pretensions were assisted by the
imprudence of the allies.  Many of the smaller states belonging
to the confederacy, wearied with perpetual hostilities, commuted
for a money payment the ships which they were bound to supply;
and thus, by depriving themselves of a navy, lost the only means
by which they could assert their independence.

The same year was marked by a memorable action against the
Persians.  Cimon at the head of 200 Athenian triremes, and 100
furnished by the allies, proceeded to the coast of Asia Minor.
The Persians had assembled a large fleet and army at the mouth of
the river Eurymedon in Pamphylia.  After speedily defeating the
fleet, Cimon landed his men and marched against the Persian army
which was drawn up on the shore to protect the fleet.  The land-
force fought with bravery, but was at length put to the rout.

The island of Thasos was the next member of the confederacy
against which the Athenians directed their arms.  After a siege
of more than two years that island surrendered, when its
fortifications were razed, and it was condemned to pay tribute
(B.C. 463).

The expedition to Thasos was attended with a circumstance which
first gives token of the coming hostilities between Sparta and
Athens.  At an early period of the blockade the Thasians secretly
applied to the Lacedaemonians to make a diversion in their favour
by invading Attica:  and though the Lacedaemonians were still
ostensibly allied with Athens, they were base enough to comply
with this request.  Their treachery, however, was prevented by a
terrible calamity which befel themselves.  In the year B.C. 461
their capital was visited by an earthquake which laid it in ruins
and killed 20,000 of the citizens.  But this was only part of the
calamity.  The earthquake was immediately followed by a revolt of
the Helots, who were always ready to avail themselves of the
weakness of their tyrants.  Being joined by the Messenians, they
fortified themselves in Mount Ithome in Messenia.  Hence this
revolt is sometimes called the Third Messenian War (B.C. 464).
after two or three years spent in a vain attempt to dislodge them
from this position, the Lacedaemonians found themselves obliged
to call in the assistance of their allies, and, among the rest,
of the Athenians.  It was with great difficulty that Cimon
persuaded the Athenians to comply with this request; but he was
at length despatched to Laconia with a force of 4000 hoplites.
The aid of the Athenians had been requested by the Lacedaemonians
on account of their acknowledged superiority in the art of
attacking fortified places.  As, however, Cimon did not succeed
in dislodging the Helots from Ithome the Lacedaemonians, probably
from a consciousness of their own treachery in the affair of
Thasos, suspected that the Athenians were playing them false, and
abruptly dismissed them, saying that they had no longer any
occasion for their services.  This rude dismissal gave great
offence at Athens, and annihilated for a time the political
influence of Cimon.  The democratical party had from the first
opposed the expedition; and it afforded them a great triumph to
be able to point to Cimon returning not only unsuccessful but
insulted.  That party was now led by Pericles.  A sort of
hereditary feud existed between Pericles and Cimon; for it was
Xanthippus, the father of Pericles, who had impeached Miltiades,
the father of Cimon.  The character of Pericles was almost the
reverse of Cimon's.  Although the leader of the popular party,
his manners were reserved.  He appeared but little in society,
and only in public upon great occasions.  His mind had received
the highest polish which that period was capable of giving.  He
constantly conversed with Anaxagoras, Protagoras, Zeno, and other
eminent philosophers.  To oratory in particular he had devoted
much attention, as an indispensable instrument for swaying the
public assemblies of Athens.

Pericles seized the occasion presented by the ill success of
Cimon, both to ruin that leader and to strike a fatal blow at the
aristocratical party.  He deprived the Areopagus of its chief
functions, and left it a mere shadow of its former influence and
power.  He rendered the election to magistracies dependent simply
upon lot, so that every citizen however poor, had an equal chance
of obtaining the honours of the state.  Other changes which
accompanied this revolution--for such it must be called--were
the institution of paid DICASTERIES or jury-courts, and the
almost entire abrogation of the judicial power of the Senate of
Five Hundred.  It cannot be supposed that such fundamental
changes were effected without violent party strife.  The poet
AEschylus, in the tragedy of the EUMENIDIES, in vain exerted all
the powers of his genius in support of the aristocratical party
and of the tottering Areopagus; his exertions on this occasion
resulted only in his own flight from Athens.  The same fate
attended Cimon himself; and he was condemned by ostracism (B.C.
461) to a ten years' banishment.  Nay, party violence even went
the length of assassination.  Ephialtes, who had taken the lead
in the attacks upon the Areopagus, fell beneath the dagger of a
Boeotian, hired by the conservative party to dispatch him.

It was from this period (B.C. 461) that the long administration
of Pericles may be said to have commenced.  The effects of his
accession to power soon became visible in the foreign relations
of Athens.  Pericles had succeeded to the political principles of
Themistocles, and his aim was to render Athens the leading power
of Greece.  The Confederacy of Delos had already secured her
maritime ascendency; Pericles directed his policy to the
extension of her influence in continental Greece.  She formed an
alliance with the Thessalians, Argos, and Megara.  The possession
of Megara was of great importance, as it enabled the Athenians to
arrest the progress of an invading army from Peloponnesus,
AEgina, so long the maritime rival of Athens, was subdued and
made tributary.  The Athenians marched with rapid steps to the
dominion of Greece.  Shortly afterwards the battle of OEnophyta
(B.C. 456), in which the Athenians defeated the Boeotians, gave
Athens the command of Thebes, and of all the other Boeotian
towns.  From the gulf of Corinth to the straits of Thermopylae
Athenian influence was now predominant.  During these events the
Athenians had continued to prosecute the war against Persia.  In
the year B.C. 460 they sent a powerful fleet to Egypt to assist
Inarus, who had revolted against Persia; but this expedition
proved a complete failure, for at the end of six years the revolt
was put down by the Persians, and the Athenian fleet destroyed
(B.C. 455).  At a later period (B.C. 449) Cimon, who had been
recalled from exile, sailed to Cyprus with a fleet of 200 ships.
He undertook the siege of Citium in that island; but died during
the progress of it, either from disease or from the effects of a
wound.  Shortly afterwards a pacification was concluded with
Persia, which is sometimes, but erroneously, called "the peace of
Cimon."  It is stated that by this compact the Persian monarch
agreed not to tax or molest the Greek colonies on the coast of
Asia Minor, nor to send any vessels of war westward of Phaselis
in Lycia, or within the Cyanean rocks at the junction of the
Euxine with the Thracian Bosporus; the Athenians on their side
undertaking to leave the Persians in undisturbed possession of
Cyprus and Egypt.  During the progress of these events, the
states which formed the Confederacy of Delos, with the exception
of Chios, Lesbos, and Samos, had gradually become, instead of the
active allies of Athens, her disarmed and passive tributaries.
Even the custody of the fund had been transferred from Delos to
Athens.  The purpose for which the confederacy had been
originally organised disappeared with the Persian peace; yet what
may now be called Imperial Athens continued, for her own ends, to
exercise her prerogatives as head of the league.  Her alliances,
as we have seen, had likewise been extended in continental
Greece, where they embraced Megara, Boeotia, Phocis, Locris,
together with Troezen and Achaia in Peloponnesus.  Such was the
position of Athens in the year 448 B.C., the period of her
greatest power and prosperity.  From this time her empire began
to decline; whilst Sparta, and other watchful and jealous
enemies, stood ever ready to strike a blow.

In the following year (B.C. 447) a revolution in Boeotia deprived
Athens of her ascendency in that country.  With an overweening
contempt of their enemies, a small band of 1000 Athenian
hoplites, chiefly composed of youthful volunteers belonging to
the best Athenian families, together with a few auxiliaries,
marched under the command of Tolmides to put down the revolt, in
direct opposition to the advice of Pericles, who adjured them to
wait and collect a more numerous force.  The enterprise proved
disastrous in the extreme.  Tolmides was defeated and slain near
Chaeronea, a large number of the hoplites also fell in the
engagement, while a still larger number were taken prisoners.
This last circumstance proved fatal to the interests of Athens in
Boeotia.  In order to recover these prisoners, she agreed to
evacuate Boeotia, and to permit the re-establishment of the
aristocracies which she had formerly overthrown.  But the
Athenian reverses did not end here.  The expulsion of the
partisans of Athens from the government of Phocis and Locris, and
the revolt of Euboea and Megara, were announced in quick
succession.  The youthful Pleistoanax, king of Sparta, actually
penetrated, with an army of Lacedaemonians and Peloponnesian
allies, as far as the neighbourhood of Eleusis; and the capital
itself, it is said, was saved only by Pericles having bribed the
Spartan monarch.  Pericles reconquered Euboea; but this was the
only possession which the Athenians succeeded in recovering.
Their empire on land had vanished more, speedily than it had been
acquired; and they were therefore induced to conclude, at the
beginning of B.C. 445, a THIRTY YEARS' TRUCE with Sparta and her
allies, by which they consented to abandon all the acquisitions
which they had made in Peloponnesus, and to leave Megara to be
included among the Peloponnesian allies of Sparta.

From the Thirty Years' Truce to the commencement of the
Peloponnesian war, few political events of any importance
occurred.  During these fourteen years (B.C. 445-431) Pericles
continued to enjoy the sole direction of affairs.  His views were
of the most lofty kind.  Athens was to become the capital of
Greece, and the centre of art and refinement.  In her external
appearance the city was to be rendered worthy of the high
position to which she aspired, by the beauty and splendour of her
public buildings, by her works of art in sculpture, architecture,
and painting, and by the pomp and magnificence of her religious
festivals.  All these objects Athens was enabled to attain in an
incredibly short space of time, through the genius and energy of
her citizens and the vast resources at her command.  No state has
ever exhibited so much intellectual activity and so great a
progress in art as was displayed by Athens in the period which
elapsed between the Thirty Years' Truce and the breaking out of
the Peloponnesian war.  She was the seat and centre of Grecian
literature.  The three great tragic poets of Greece were natives
of Attica.  AEschylus, the earliest of the three, had recently
died in Sicily; but Sophocles was now at the full height of his
reputation, and Euripides was rapidly rising into notice.
Aristophanes, the greatest of the Grecian comic poets, was also
born in Attica, and exhibited plays soon after the beginning of
the Peloponnesian war.  Herodotus, the Father of History, though
a native of Halicarnassus in Asia Minor, resided some time at
Athens, and accompanied a colony which the Athenians sent to
Thurii in Italy.  Thucydides, the greatest of Greek historians,
was an Athenian, and was a young man at this period.

Colonization, for which the genius and inclination of the
Athenians had always been suited, was another method adopted by
Pericles for extending the influence and empire of Athens.  The
settlements made under his auspices were of two kinds CLERUCHIES,
and regular colonies.  The former mode was exclusively Athenian.
It consisted in the allotment of land in conquered or subject
countries to certain bodies of Athenians who continued to retain
all their original rights of citizenship.  This circumstance, as
well as the convenience of entering upon land already in a state
of cultivation instead of having to reclaim it from the rude
condition of nature, seems to have rendered such a mode of
settlement much preferred by the Athenians.  The earliest
instance which we find of it is in the year B.C. 506, when four
thousand Athenians entered upon the domains of the Chalcidian
knights (see Ch.5).  But it was under Pericles that this system
was most extensively adopted.  During his administration 1000
Athenian citizens were settled in the Thracian Chersonese, 500 in
Naxos, and 250 in Andros.  The islands of Lemnos, Imbros, and
Scyros, as well as a large tract in the north of Euboea, were
also completely occupied by Athenian proprietors.

The most important colonies settled by Pericles were those of
Thurii and Amphipolis.  Since the destruction of Sybaris by the
Crotoniates, in B.C. 509, the former inhabitants had lived
dispersed in the adjoining territory along the gulf of Tarentum,
In B.C. 443 Pericles sent out a colony to found Thurii, near the
site of the ancient Sybaris.  The colony of Amphipolis was
founded some years later (B.C. 437), under the conduct of Agnon.

But Pericles, notwithstanding his influence and power, had still
many bitter and active enemies, who assailed him through his
private connections, and even endeavoured to wound his honour by
a charge of peculation.  Pericles, after divorcing a wife with
whom he had lived unhappily, took his mistress Aspasia to his
house, and dwelt with her till his death on terms of the greatest
affection.  She was distinguished not only for her beauty, but
also for her learning and accomplishments.  Her intimacy with
Anaxagoras, the celebrated Ionic philosopher, was made a handle
for wounding Pericles in his tenderest relations.  Paganism,
notwithstanding its licence, was capable of producing bigots:
and even at Athens the man who ventured to dispute the existence
of a hundred gods with morals and passions somewhat worse than
those of ordinary human nature, did so at the risk of his life.
Anaxagoras was indicted for impiety.  Aspasia was included in the
same charge, and dragged before the courts of justice.
Anaxagoras prudently fled from Athens, and thus probably avoided
a fate which in consequence of a similar accusation afterwards
overtook Socrates.  Pericles himself pleaded the cause of
Aspasia.  He was indeed indirectly implicated in the indictment;
but he felt no concern except for his beloved Aspasia, and on
this occasion the cold and somewhat haughty statesman, whom the
most violent storms of the assembly could not deprive of his
self-possession, was for once seen to weep.  His appeal to the
jury was successful, but another trial still awaited him.  An
indictment was preferred against his friend, the great sculptor
Phidias, for embezzlement of the gold intended to adorn the
celebrated ivory statue of Athena; and according to some,
Pericles himself was included in the charge of peculation.
Whether Pericles was ever actually tried on this accusation is
uncertain; but at all events, if he was, there can be no doubt
that he was honourably acquitted.  The gold employed in the
statue had been fixed in such a manner that it could be detached
and weighed, and Pericles challenged his accusers to the proof.
But Phidias did not escape so fortunately.  There were other
circumstances which rendered him unpopular, and amongst them the
fact that he had introduced portraits both of himself and
Pericles in the sculptures which adorned the frieze of the
Parthenon.  Phidias died in prison before the day of trial.

The Athenian empire, since the conclusion of the Thirty Years'
Truce, had again become exclusively maritime.  Yet even among the
subjects and allies united with Athens by the Confederacy of
Delos, her sway was borne with growing discontent.  One of the
chief causes of this dissatisfaction was the amount of the
tribute exacted by the Athenians, as well as their misapplication
of the proceeds.  In the time of Aristides and Cimon, when an
active war was carrying on against the Persians, the sum annually
collected amounted to 460 talents.  In the time of Pericles,
although that war had been brought to a close, the tribute had
nevertheless increased to the annual sum of 600 talents.  Another
grievance was the transference to Athens of all lawsuits, at
least of all public suits; for on this subject we are unable to
draw the line distinctly.  In criminal cases, at all events, the
allies seem to have been deprived of the power to inflict capital
punishment.  Besides all these causes of complaint, the allies
had often to endure the oppressions and exactions of Athenian
officers, both military and naval, as well us of the rich and
powerful Athenian citizens settled among them.

In B.C. 440 Samos, one of the free independent allies already
mentioned, revolted from Athens; but even this island was no
match for the Athenian power.  Pericles, who sailed against the
Samians in person, defeated their fleet in several engagements,
and forced the city to capitulate.  The Samians were compelled to
raze their fortifications, to surrender their fleet, to give
hostages for their future conduct, and to pay the expenses of the

The triumphs and the power of Athens were regarded with fear and
jealousy by her rivals; and the quarrel between Corinth and
Corcyra lighted the spark which was to produce the conflagration.
On the coast of Illyria near the site of the modern Durazzo, the
Corcyraeans had founded the city of Epidamnus.  Corcyra (now
Corfu) was itself a colony of Corinth; and though long at enmity
with its mother country, was forced, according to the time-
hallowed custom of the Greeks in such matters, to select the
founder of Epidamnus from the Corinthians.  Accordingly Corinth
became the metropolis of Epidamnus as well as of Corcyra.  At the
time of which we speak, the Epidamnians, being hard pressed by
the Illyrians, led by some oligarchical exiles of their own city,
applied to Corcyra for assistance, which the Corcyraeans, being
connected with the Epidamnian oligarchy, refused.  The
Epidamnians then sought help from the Corinthians, who undertook
to assist them.  The Corcyraeans, highly resenting this
interference, attacked the Corinthian fleet off Cape Actium, and
gained a signal victory (B.C. 435).

Deeply humbled by this defeat, the Corinthians spent the two
following years in active preparations for retrieving it.  The
Corcyraeans, who had not enrolled themselves either in the
Lacedaemonian or Athenian alliance, and therefore stood alone,
were greatly alarmed at these preparations.  They now resolved to
remedy this deficiency; and as Corinth belonged to the
Lacedaemonian alliance, the Corcyraeans had no option, and were
obliged to apply to Athens.  The majority of the Athenians were
ready to comply with their request; but in order to avoid an open
infringement of the Thirty Years' Truce, it was resolved to
conclude only a defensive alliance with Corcyra:  that is, to
defend the Corcyraeans in case their territories were actually
invaded by the Corinthians, but beyond that not to lend them any
active assistance.  A small Athenian squadron of only 10 triremes
was despatched to the assistance of the Corcyraeans.  Soon after
their arrival a battle ensued off the coast of Epirus, between
the Corinthian and Corcyraean fleets.  After a hard-fought day,
victory finally declared in favour of the Corinthians.  The
Athenians now abandoned their neutrality, and did all in their
power to save the dying Corcyraeans from their pursuers.  This
action took place early in the morning; and the Corinthians
prepared to renew the attack in the afternoon, when they saw in
the distance 20 Athenian vessels, which they believed to be the
advanced guard of a still larger fleet.  They accordingly sailed
away to the coast of Epirus; but finding that the Athenians did
not mean to undertake offensive operations against them, they
departed homewards with their whole fleet.  These events took
place in the year B.C. 432.

The Corinthians were naturally incensed at the conduct of Athens;
and it is not surprising that they should have watched for an
opportunity of revenge.  This was soon afforded them by the
enmity of the Macedonian prince Perdiccas towards the Athenians.
He incited her tributaries upon the coast of Macedonia to revolt,
including Potidaea, a town seated on the isthmus of Pallene.
Potidaea, though now a tributary of Athens, was originally a
colony of the Corinthians, and received from them certain annual
magistrates.  Being urged as well by the Corinthians as by
Perdiccas, the Potidaeans openly raised the standard of revolt
(B.C. 432).  A powerful Athenian armament was despatched to the
coast of Macedonia and laid siege to Potidaea.

Meanwhile the Lacedaemonians, urged on all sides by the
complaints of their allies against Athens, summoned a general
meeting of the Peloponnesian confederacy at Sparta.  The
Corinthians took the most prominent part in the debate; but other
members of the confederacy had also heavy grievances to allege
against Athens.  Foremost among these were the Megarians, who
complained that their commerce had been ruined by a recent decree
of the Athenians which excluded them from every port within the
Athenian jurisdiction.  It was generally felt that the time had
now arrived for checking the power of Athens.  Influenced by
these feelings, the Lacedaemonians decided upon war; and the
congress passed a resolution to the same effect, thus binding the
whole Peloponnesian confederacy to the same policy.  This
important resolution was adopted towards the close of B.C. 432,
or early in the following year.  Before any actual declaration of
war, hostilities were begun in the spring of B.C. 431 by a
treacherous attack of the Thebans upon Plataea.  Though Boeotians
by descent, the Plataeans did not belong to the Boeotian league,
but had long been in close alliance with the Athenians.  Hence
they were regarded with hatred and jealousy by the Thebans, which
sentiments were also shared by a small oligarchical faction in
Plataea itself.  The Plataean oligarchs secretly admitted a body
of 300 Thebans into the town at night; but the attempt proved a
failure; the citizens flew to arms, and in the morning all the
Thebans were either slain or taken prisoner.



The figures referred to in a few places in this chapter have had
to be omitted from the etext.]

At the commencement of the Peloponnesian war Athens was at the
height of its glory under the brilliant administration of
Pericles.  We may therefore here pause to take a brief survey of
the city and of its most important buildings.  Athens is situated
about three miles from the sea-coast, in the central plain of
Attica.  In this plain rise several eminences.  Of these the most
prominent is a lofty insulated mountain, with a conical peaked
summit, now called the Hill of St. George, and which bore in
ancient times the name of LYCABETTUS.  This mountain, which was
not included within the ancient walls, lies to the north-east of
Athens, and forms the most striking feature in the environs of
the city.  It is to Athens what Vesuvius is to Naples, or
Arthur's Seat to Edinburgh.  South-west of Lycabettus there are
four hills of moderate height, all of which formed part of the
city.  Of these the nearest to Lycabettus and at the distance of
a mile from the latter, was the ACROPOLIS, or citadel of Athens,
a square craggy rock rising abruptly about 150 feet, with a flat
summit of about 1000 feet long from east to west, by 500 feet
broad from north to south.  Immediately west of the Acropolis is
a second hill of irregular form, the AREOPAGUS.  To the south-
west there rises a third hill, the PNYX, on which the assemblies
of the citizens were held; and to the south of the latter is a
fourth hill, known as the MUSEUM.  On the eastern and western
sides of the city there run two small streams, which are nearly
exhausted before they reach the sea, by the heats of summer and
by the channels for artificial irrigation.  That on the east is
the Ilissus, which flowed through the southern quarter of the
city:  that on the west is the Cephissus.  South of the city was
seen the Saronic gulf, with the harbours of Athens.

Athens is said to have derived its name from the prominence given
to the worship of Athena by its king Erechtheus.  The inhabitants
were previously called Cranai and Cecropidae, from Cecrops, who
according to tradition, was the original founder of the city.
This at first occupied only the hill or rock which afterwards
became the ACROPOLIS; but gradually the buildings began to spread
over the ground at the southern foot of this hill.  It was not
till the time of Pisistratus and his sons (B.C. 560-514) that the
city began to assume any degree of splendour.  The most
remarkable building of these despots was the gigantic temple of
the Olympian Zeus, which, however, was not finished till many
centuries later.  In B.C. 500 the theatre of Dionysus was
commenced on the south-eastern slope of the Acropolis, but was
not completed till B.C. 34O; though it must have been used for
the representation of plays long before that period.

Xerxes reduced the ancient city almost to a heap of ashes.  After
the departure of the Persians, its reconstruction on a much
larger scale was commenced under the superintendence of
Themistocles, whose first care was to provide for its safety by
the erection of walls.  The Acropolis now formed the centre of
the city, round which the new walls described an irregular circle
of about 60 stadia or 7 1/2 miles in circumference.  The space
thus enclosed formed the ASTY, or city, properly so called.  But
the views of Themistocles were not confined to the mere defence
of Athens:  he contemplated making her a great naval power, and
for this purpose adequate docks and arsenals were required.
Previously the Athenians had used as their only harbour the open
roadstead of PHALERUM on the eastern side of the Phaleric bay,
where the sea-shore is nearest to Athens.  But Themistocles
transferred the naval station of the Athenians to the peninsula
of Piraeus, which is distant about 4 1/2 miles from Athens, and
contains three natural harbours,--a large one on the western
side, called simply Piraeus or The Harbour, and two smaller ones
an the eastern side, called respectively ZEA and MUNYCHIA, the
latter being nearest to the city.  It was not till the
administration of Pericles that the walls were built which
connected Athens with her ports.  These were at first the outer
or northern Long Wall, which ran from Athens to Piraeus, and the
Phaleric wall connecting the city with Phalerum.  These were
commenced in B.C. 457, and finished in the following year.  It
was soon found, however, that the space thus enclosed was too
vast to be easily defended; and as the port of Phalerum was small
and insignificant in comparison with the Piraeus, and soon ceased
to be used by the Athenian ships of war, its wall was abandoned
and probably allowed to fall into decay.  Its place was supplied
by another Long wall, which was built parallel to the first at a
distance of only 550 feet, thus rendering both capable of being
defended by the same body of men.  Their height in all
probability was not less than 60 feet.  In process of time the
space between the two Long Walls was occupied on each side by

It will be seen from the preceding description that Athens, in
its larger acceptation, and including its port, consisted of two
circular cities, the Asty and Piraeus, each of about 7 1/2 miles
in circumference, and joined together by a broad street of
between four and five miles long.

Such was the outward and material form of that city, which during
the period between the Persian and Peloponnesian wars reached the
highest pitch of military, artistic, and literary glory.  The
latter portion of this period, or that comprised under the
ascendency of Pericles, exhibits Athenian art in its highest
state of perfection, and is therefore by way of excellence
commonly designated as the age of Pericles.  The great sculptor
of this period--perhaps the greatest the world has ever seen--
was Phidias, to whom Pericles intrusted the superintendence of
all the works executed in his administration.

The first public monuments that arose after the Persian wars were
erected under the auspices of Cimon, who was, like Pericles, a
lover and patron of the arts.  The principal of these were the
small Ionic temple of Nike Apteros (Wingless Victory), and the
Theseum, or temple of Theseus.  The temple of Nike Apteros was
only 27 feet in length by 18 in breadth, and was erected on the
Acropolis in commemoration of Cimon's victory at the Eurymedon.
A view of it is given at the beginning of this chapter, and its
position on the Acropolis, on one side of the Propylaea, is seen
in the drawings on p. 91, as well as on the Frontispiece of the

The Theseum is situated on a height to the north of the
Areopagus, and was built to receive the bones of Theseus, which
Cimon brought from Scyros in B.C. 469.  It was probably finished
about 465, and is the best preserved of all the monuments of
ancient Athens.  It was at once a tomb and temple, and possessed
the privileges of an asylum.  It is of the Doric order, 164 feet
in length by 45 feet broad, and surrounded with columns.

But it was the Acropolis which was the chief centre of the
architectural splendour of Athens.  After the Persian wars the
Acropolis had ceased to be inhabited, and was appropriated to the
worship of Athena and to the other guardian deities of the city.
It was covered with the temples of gods and heroes; and thus its
platform presented not only a sanctuary, but a museum, containing
the finest productions of the architect and the sculptor, in
which the whiteness of the marble was relieved by brilliant
colours, and rendered still more dazzling by the transparent
clearness of the Athenian atmosphere.  It was surrounded with
walls, and the surface seems to have been divided into terraces
communicating with one another by steps.  The only approach to it
was from the Agora on its western side at the top of a
magnificent flight of marble steps, 70 feet broad, stood the
Propylaea, constructed under the auspices of Pericles, and which
served as a suitable entrance to the exquisite works within.  The
Propylaea were themselves one of the masterpieces of Athenian
art.  They were entirely of Pentelic marble, and covered the
whole of the western end of the Acropolis, having a breadth of
168 feet.  The central portion of them consisted of two
porticoes, of which the western one faced the city, and the
eastern one the interior of the Acropolis, each consisting of a
front of six fluted Doric columns.  This central part of the
building was 58 feet in breadth, but the remaining breadth of the
rock at this point was covered by two wings, which projected 26
feet in front of the western portico.  Each of these wings was in
the form of a Doric temple.  The northern one, or that on the
left of a person ascending the Acropolis, was called the
PINACOTHECA, from its walls being covered with paintings.  The
southern wing consisted only of a porch or open gallery.
Immediately before its western front stood the little temple of
Nike Apteros already mentioned.

On passing through the Propylaea all the glories of the Acropolis
became visible.  The chief building was the Parthenon (I.E. House
of the Virgin), the most perfect production of Grecian
architecture.  It derived its name from its being the temple of
Athena Parthenos, or Athena the Virgin, the invincible goddess of
war.  It was also called HECATOMPEDON, from its breadth of 100
feet.  It was built under the administration of Pericles, and was
completed in B.C. 438.  The Parthenon stood on the highest part
of the Acropolis near its centre, and probably occupied the site
of an earlier temple destroyed by the Persians.  It was entirely
of Pentelic marble, on a rustic basement of ordinary limestone,
and its architecture, which was of the Doric order, was of the
purest kind.  Its dimensions were about 228 feet in length, 101
feet in breadth, and 66 feet in height to the top of the
pediment.  It consisted of a cella, surrounded by a peristyle.
The cella was divided into two chambers of unequal size, the
eastern one of which was about 98 feet long, and the western one
about 43 feet.  The ceiling of both these chambers was supported
by rows of columns.  The whole building was adorned with the most
exquisite sculptures, executed by various artists under the
direction of Phidias.  These consisted of,  1. The sculptures in
the tympana of the pediments (I.E. the inner portion of the
triangular gable ends of the roof above the two porticoes), each
of which was filled with about 24 colossal figures.  The group in
the eastern or principal front represented the birth of Athena
from the head of Zeus, and the western the contest between Athena
and Poseidon (Neptune) for the land of Attica.   2. The metopes
between the triglyphs in the frieze of the entablature (I.E. the
upper of the two portions into which the space between the
columns and the roof is divided) were filled with sculptures in
high relief, representing a variety of subjects relating to
Athena herself, or to the indigenous heroes of Attica.  Each
tablet was 4 feet 3 inches square.  Those on the south side
related to the battle of the Athenians with the Centaurs.  One of
the metopes is figured below.   3. The frieze which ran along
outside the wall of the cella, and within the external columns
which surround the building, at the same height and parallel with
the metopes, was sculptured with a representation of the
Panathenaic festival in very low relief.  This frieze was 3 feet
4 inches in height, and 520 feet in length.  A small portion of
the frieze is also figured below.   A large number of the slabs
of the frieze, together with sixteen metopes from the south side,
and several of the statues of the pediments, were brought to
England by Lord Elgin, of whom they were purchased by the nation
and deposited in the British Museum.

But the chief wonder of the Parthenon was the colossal statue of
the Virgin Goddess executed by Phidias himself, which stood in
the eastern or principal chamber of the cella.  It was of the
sort called CHRYSELEPHANTINE, a kind of work said to have been
invented by Phidias in which ivory was substituted for marble in
those parts which were uncovered, while the place of the real
drapery was supplied with robes and other ornaments of solid
gold.  Its height, including the base, was nearly 40 feet.  It
represented the goddess standing, clothed with a tunic reaching
to the ankles, with a spear in her left hand, and an image of
Victory in her right.

The Acropolis was adorned with another colossal figure of Athena,
in bronze, also the work of Phidias.  It stood in the open air,
nearly opposite the Propylaea, and was one of the first objects
seen after passing through the gates of the latter.  With its
pedestal it must have stood about 70 feet high, and consequently
towered above the roof of the Parthenon, so that the point of its
spear and the crest of its helmet were visible off the promontory
of Sunium to ships approaching Athens.  It was called the "Athena
Promachus," because it represented the goddess armed, and in the
very attitude of battle.

The only other monument on the summit of the Acropolis which it
is necessary to describe is the Erechtheum, or temple of
Erechtheus.  The traditions respecting Erechtheus vary, but
according to one set of them he was identical with the god
Poseidon.  He was worshipped in his temple under the name of
Poseidon Erechtheus, and from the earliest times was associated
with Athena as one of the two protecting deities of Athens.  The
original Erechtheum was burnt by the Persians, but the new temple
was erected on the ancient site.  This could not have been
otherwise; for on this spot was the sacred olive-tree which
Athena evoked from the earth in her contest with Poseidon, and
also the well of salt-water which Poseidon produced by a stroke
of his trident, the impression of which was seen upon the rock.
The building was also called the temple of Athena Polias, because
it contained a separate sanctuary of the goddess, as well as her
most ancient statue.  The building of the new Erechtheum was not
commenced till the Parthenon and Propylaea were finished, and
probably not before the year preceding the breaking out of the
Peloponnesian war.  Its progress was no doubt delayed by that
event, and it was probably not completed before 393 B.C.  When
finished it presented one of the finest models of the Ionic
order, as the Parthenon was of the Doric, It stood to the north
of the latter building and close to the northern wall of the
Acropolis.  The form of the Erechtheum differed from every known
example of a Grecian temple.  Usually a Grecian temple was an
oblong figure with a portico at each extremity.  The Erechtheum,
on the contrary, though oblong in shape and having a portico at
the eastern or principal front, had none at its western end,
where, however, a portico projected north and south from either
side, thus forming a kind of transept.  This irregularity seems
to have been chiefly owing to the necessity of preserving the
different sanctuaries and religious objects belonging to the
ancient temple.  A view of it is given opposite.  The roof of the
southern portico, as shown in the view, was supported by six

Such were the principal objects which adorned the Acropolis at
the time of which we are now speaking.  Their general appearance
will be best gathered from the engraving on the Frontispiece.

Before quitting the city of Athens, there are two or three other
objects of interest which must be briefly described.  First, the
Dionysiac theatre, which occupied the slope at the south-eastern
extremity of the Acropolis.  The middle of it was excavated out
of the rock, and the rows of seats ascended in curves one above
another, the diameter increasing with the height.  It was no
doubt sufficiently large to accommodate the whole body of
Athenian citizens, as well as the strangers who flocked to Athens
during the Dionysiac festival, but its dimensions cannot now be
accurately ascertained.  It had no roof, but the spectators were
probably protected from the sun by an awning, and from their
elevated seats they had a distinct view of the sea, and of the
peaked hills of Salamis in the horizon.  Above them rose the
Parthenon and the other buildings of the Acropolis, so that they
sat under the shadow of the ancestral gods of the country.

The Areopagus, or Hill of Ares (Mars), was a rocky height
opposite the western end of the Acropolis, from which it was
separated only by some hollow ground.  It derived its name from
the tradition that Ares (Mars) was brought to trial here before
the assembled gods, by Poseidon (Neptune), for murdering
Halirrhothius the son of the latter.  It was here that the
Council of Areopagus met, frequently called the Upper Council, to
distinguish it from the Council of Five Hundred, which assembled
in the valley below.  The Areopagites sat as judges in the open
air, and two blocks of stone are still to be seen, probably those
which were occupied respectively by the accuser and the accused.
The Areopagus was the spot where the Apostle Paul preached to the
men of Athens.

The Pnyx, or place for holding the public assemblies of the
Athenians, stood on the side of a low rocky hill, at the distance
of about a quarter of a mile from the Areopagus.  Projecting from
the hill and hewn out of it, still stands a solid rectangular
block, called the Bema or pulpit, from whence the orators
addressed the multitude in the area before them.  The position of
the Bema commanded a view of the Propylaea and the other
magnificent edifices of the Acropolis, while beneath it was the
city itself studded with monuments of Athenian glory.  The
Athenian orators frequently roused the national feelings of their
audience by pointing to the Propylaea and to the other splendid
buildings before them.  Between the Pnyx on the west, the
Areopagus on the north, and the Acropolis on the east, and
closely adjoining the base of these hills, stood the Agora (or
market-place).  In a direction from north-west to south-east a
street called the Ceramicus ran diagonally through the Agora,
entering it through the valley between the Pnyx and the
Areopagus.  The street was named after a district of the city,
which was divided into two parts, the Inner and Outer Ceramicus.
The former lay within the city walls, and included the Agora.
The Outer Ceramicus, which formed a handsome suburb on the north-
west of the city, was the burial-place of all persons honoured
with a public funeral.  Through it ran the road to the gymnasium
and gardens of the Academy which were situated about a mile from
the walls.  The Academy was the place where Plato and his
disciples taught.  On each side of this road were monuments to
illustrious Athenians, especially those who had fallen in battle.

East of the city, and outside the walls, was the Lyceum, a
gymnasium dedicated to Apollo Lyceus, and celebrated as the place
in which Aristotle taught.



War was now fairly kindled.  All Greece looked on in suspense as
its two leading cities were about to engage in a strife of which
no man could forsee the end; but the youth, with which both
Athens and Peloponnesus then abounded, having had no experience
of the bitter calamities of war, rushed into it with ardour.  It
was a war of principles and races.  Athens was a champion of
democracy, Sparta of aristocracy; Athens represented the Ionic
tribes, Sparta the Dorian; the former were fond of novelty, the
latter were conservative and stationary; Athens had the command
of the sea, Sparta was stronger upon land.  On the side of Sparta
was ranged the whole of Peloponnesus, except Argos and Achaia,
together with the Megarians, Boeotians, Phocians, Opuntian
Locrians, Ambraciots, Leucadians, and Anactorians.  The allies of
Athens, with the exception of the Thessalians, Acarnanians,
Messenians at Naupactus, and Plataeans, were all insular, and
consisted of the Chians, Lesbians, Corcyraeans, and Zacynthians,
and shortly afterwards of the Cephallenians, To these must be
added her tributary towns on the coast of Thrace and Asia Minor,
together with all the islands north of Crete, except Melos and

The Peloponnesians commenced the war by an invasion of Attica,
with a large army, under the command of the Spartan King
Archidamus (B.C. 431).  Pericles had instructed the inhabitants
of Attica to secure themselves and their property within the
walls of Athens.  They obeyed his injunctions with reluctance,
for the Attic population had from the earliest times been
strongly attached to a rural life.  But the circumstances
admitted of no alternative.  Archidamus advanced as far as
Acharnae, a flourishing Attic borough situated only about seven
miles from Athens.  Here he encamped on a rising ground within
sight of the metropolis, and began to lay waste the country
around, expecting probably by that means to provoke the Athenians
to battle.  But in this he was disappointed.  Notwithstanding the
murmurs and clamours of the citizens Pericles remained firm, and
steadily refused to venture an engagement in the open held.  The
Peloponnesians retired from Attica after still further ravaging
the country; and the Athenians retaliated by making descents upon
various parts of the coasts of Peloponnesus, and ravaging the
territory of Megara.

Such were the results of the first campaign.  From the method in
which the war was conducted it had become pretty evident that it
would prove of long duration; and the Athenians now proceeded to
provide for this contingency.  It was agreed that a reserve fund
of 1000 talents should be set apart, which was not to be touched
in any other case than an attack upon Athens by sea.  Any citizen
who proposed to make a different use of the fund incurred thereby
the punishment of death.  With the same view it was resolved to
reserve every year 100 of their best triremes, fully manned and

Towards the winter Pericles delivered, from a lofty platform
erected in the Ceramicus, the funeral oration of those who had
fallen in the war.  This speech, or at all events the substance
of it, has been preserved by Thucydides, who may possibly have
heard it pronounced.  It is a valuable monument of eloquence and
patriotism, and particularly interesting for the sketch which it
contains of Athenian manners as well as of the Athenian

In the following year (B.C. 430) the Peloponnesians, under
Archidamus, renewed their invasion of Attica.  At the same time
the Athenians were attacked by a more insidious and a more
formidable enemy.  The plague broke out in the crowded city.
This terrible disorder, which was supposed to have originated in
AEthiopia, had already desolated Asia and many of the countries
around the Mediterranean.  A great proportion of those who were
seized perished in from seven to nine days.  It frequently
attacked the mental faculties, and left even those who recovered
from it so entirely deprived of memory that they could recognise
neither themselves nor others.  The disorder being new, the
physicians could find no remedy in the resources of their art.
Despair now began to take possession of the Athenians.  Some
suspected that the Peloponnesians had poisoned the wells; others
attributed the pestilence to the anger of Apollo.  A dreadful
state of moral dissolution followed.  The sick were seized with
unconquerable despondency; whilst a great part of the population
who had hitherto escaped the disorder, expecting soon to be
attacked in turn, abandoned themselves to all manner of excess,
debauchery, and crime.  The numbers carried off by the pestilence
can hardly be estimated at less than a fourth of the whole

Oppressed at once by war and pestilence, their lands desolated,
their homes filled with mourning, it is not surprising that the
Athenians were seized with rage and despair, or that they vented
their anger on Pericles, whom they deemed the author of their
misfortunes.  But that statesman still adhered to his plans with
unshaken firmness.  Though the Lacedaemonians were in Attica,
though the plague had already seized on Athens, he was vigorously
pushing his schemes of offensive operations.  A foreign
expedition might not only divert the popular mind but would prove
beneficial by relieving the crowded city of part of its
population; and accordingly a fleet was fitted out, of which
Pericles himself took the command, and which committed
devastations upon various parts of the Peloponnesian coast.  But,
upon returning from this expedition, Pericles found the public
feeling more exasperated than before.  Envoys had even been
despatched to Sparta to sue for peace, but had been dismissed
without a hearing; a disappointment which had rendered the
populace still more furious.  Pericles now found it necessary to
call a public assembly in order to vindicate his conduct, and to
encourage the desponding citizens to persevere.  But though he
succeeded in persuading them to prosecute the war with vigour;
they still continued to nourish their feelings of hatred against
the great statesman.  His political enemies, of whom Cleon was
the chief, took advantage of this state of the public mind to
bring against him a charge of peculation.  The main object of
this accusation was to incapacitate him for the office of
Strategus, or general.  [The Strategi, or Generals, were ten in
number, elected annually, and were intrusted not only with the
command on military expeditions, but with the superintendence of
all warlike preparations, and with the regulation of all matters
in any way connected with the war department of the state.]  He
was brought before the dicastery on this charge, and sentenced to
pay a considerable fine; but eventually a strong reaction
occurred in his favour.  He was re-elected general, and
apparently regained all the influence he had ever possessed.

But he was not destined long to enjoy this return of popularity.
His life was now closing in, and its end was clouded by a long
train of domestic misfortunes.  The epidemic deprived him not
only of many personal and political friends, but also of several
near relations, amongst whom were his sister and his two
legitimate sons Xanthippus and Paralus.  The death of the latter
was a severe blow to him.  During the funeral ceremonies, as he
placed a garland on the body of this his favourite son, he was
completely overpowered by his feelings and wept aloud.  His
ancient house was now left without an heir.  By Aspasia, however,
he had an illegitimate son who bore his own name, and whom the
Athenians now legitimised and thus alleviated, as far as lay in
their power, the misfortunes of their great leader.

After this period it was with difficulty that Pericles was
persuaded by his friends to take any active part in public
affairs; nor did he survive more than a twelvemonth.  An attack
of the prevailing epidemic was succeeded by a low and lingering
fever, which undermined both his strength of body and vigour of
intellect.  As Pericles lay apparently unconscious on his death-
bed, the friends who stood around it were engaged in recalling
his exploits.  The dying man interrupted them by remarking:
"What you praise in me is partly the result of good fortune, and
at all events common to me with many other commanders.  What I
chiefly pride myself upon you have not noticed--no Athenian ever
wore mourning through me."

The enormous influence which Pericles exercised for so long a
period over an ingenious but fickle people like the Athenians, is
an unquestionable proof of his intellectual superiority.  This
hold on the public affection is to be attributed to a great
extent to his extraordinary eloquence.  Cicero regards him as the
first example of an almost perfect orator, at once delighting the
Athenians with his copiousness and grace, and overawing them by
the force and cogency of his diction and arguments.  He seems,
indeed, to have singularly combined the power of persuasion with
that more rapid and abrupt style of oratory which takes an
audience by storm and defies all resistance.  As the accomplished
man of genius and the liberal patron of literature and art,
Pericles is worthy of the highest admiration.  By these qualities
he has justly given name to the most brilliant intellectual epoch
that the world has ever seen.  But on this point we have already
touched, and shall have occasion to refer hereafter in the sketch
of Grecian literature.

In the third year of the war (B.C. 429) Archidamus directed his
whole force against the ill-fated town of Plataea.  The siege
that ensued is one of the most memorable in the annals of Grecian
warfare.  Plataea was but a small city, and its garrison
consisted of only 400 citizens and 80 Athenians, together with
110 women to manage their household affairs.  Yet this small
force set at defiance the whole army of the Peloponnesians.  The
latter, being repulsed in all their attempts to take the place by
storm, resolved to turn the siege into a blockade, and reduce the
city by famine.  The Plataeans endured a blockade of two years,
during which the Athenians attempted nothing for their relief.
In the second year, however, about half the garrison effected
their escape; but the rest were obliged to surrender shortly
afterwards (B.C. 427).  The whole garrison, consisting of 200
Plataeans and 25 Athenians, were now arraigned before five judges
sent from Sparta.  Their indictment was framed in a way which
precluded the possibility of escape.  They were simply asked
"Whether, during the present war, they had rendered any
assistance to the Lacedaemonians and their allies?"  Each man was
called up separately before the judgment-seat, and the same
question having been put to him and of course answered in the
negative, he was immediately led away to execution.  The town of
Plataea was transferred to the Thebans, who a few months
afterwards levelled all the private buildings to the ground.
Thus was Plataea blotted out from the map of Greece (B.C. 427).
In recording the fall of Plataea we have anticipated the order of

The most important event in the fourth year of the war (B.C. 428)
was the revolt of Mytilene; the capital of Lesbos, and of the
greater part of that island.  The Athenians sent out a fleet
which blockaded Mytilene both by sea and land, The Peloponnesians
promised their assistance; but from various causes their fleet
was unable to reach the place.  Meanwhile the provisions of the
town were exhausted, and it was therefore resolved, as a last
desperate expedient, to make a sally, and endeavour to raise the
blockade.  With this view even the men of the lower classes were
armed with the full armour of the hoplites.  But this step
produced a very different result from what had been expected or
intended.  The great mass of the Mytileneans regarded their own
oligarchical government with suspicion and now threatened that,
unless their demands were complied with, they would surrender the
city to the Athenians.  In this desperate emergency the
Mytilenean government perceived that their only chance of safety
lay in anticipating the people in this step.  They accordingly
opened a negotiation with Paches, the Athenian commander, and a
capitulation was agreed upon by which the city was to be
surrendered and the fate of its inhabitants to be decided by the
Athenian Assembly.

At Athens the disposal of the prisoners caused great debate.  It
was on this occasion that the leather-seller Cleon first comes
prominently forward in Athenian affairs.  If we may trust the
picture drawn by the comic poet Aristophanes, Cleon was a perfect
model of a low-born demagogue; a noisy brawler, insolent in his
gestures, corrupt and venal in his principles.  Much allowance
must no doubt be made for comic licence and exaggeration in this
portrait, but even a caricature must have some grounds of truth
for its basis.  It was this man who took the lead in the debate
respecting the disposal of the Mytileneans, and made the savage
and horrible proposal to put to death the whole male population
of Mytilene of military age, and to sell the women and children
into slavery.  This motion he succeeded in carrying and a trireme
was immediately despatched to Mytilene, conveying orders to
Paches to carry the bloody decree into execution.  This barbarous
decree made no discrimination between the innocent and the
guilty; and on the morrow so general a feeling prevailed of the
horrible injustice that had been committed, that the magistrates
acceded to the prayer of the Mytilenean envoys and called a fresh
assembly.  Notwithstanding the violent opposition of Creon, the
majority of the assembly reversed their former decree and
resolved that the Mytileneans already in custody should be put
upon their trial, but that the remainder of the population should
be spared.  A second trireme was immediately despatched to
Mytilene, with orders to Paches to arrest the execution.  The
utmost diligence was needful.  The former trireme had a start of
four-and-twenty hours, and nothing but exertions almost
superhuman would enable the second to reach Mytilene early enough
to avert the tragical catastrophe, The oarsmen were allowed by
turns only short intervals of rest, and took their food,
consisting of barley-meal steeped in wine and oil, as they sat at
the oar.  Happily the weather proved favourable; and the crew,
who had been promised large rewards in case they arrived in time,
exerted themselves to deliver the reprieve, whilst the crew of
the preceding vessel had conveyed the order for execution with
slowness and reluctance.  Yet even so the countermand came only
just in time.  The mandate was already in the hands of Paches,
who was taking measures for its execution.  The fortifications of
Mytilene were razed, and her fleet delivered up to the Athenians.

The fate of the Plataeans and Mytileneans affords a fearful
illustration of the manners of the age; but these horrors soon
found a parallel in Corcyra.  A fearful struggle took place in
this island between the aristocratical and democratical parties.
The people at length obtained the mastery, and the vengeance
which they took on their opponents was fearful.  The most sacred
sanctuaries afforded no protection; the nearest ties of blood and
kindred were sacrificed to civil hatred.  In one case a father
slew even his own son.  These scenes of horror lasted for seven
days, during which death in every conceivable form was busily at

The seventh year of the war (B.C. 425) was marked by an important
event.  An Athenian fleet was detained by bad weather at Pylus in
Messenia, on the modern bay of Navarino.  Demosthenes, an active
Athenian officer, who was on board the fleet, thought it an
eligible spot on which to establish some of the Messenians from
Naupactus, since it was a strong position, from which they might
annoy the Lacedaemonians, and excite revolt among their Helot
kinsmen.  As the bad weather continued for some time, the
soldiers on board amused themselves, under the directions of
Demosthenes, in constructing a sort of rude fortification.  The
nature of the ground was favourable for the work, and in five or
six days a wall was throws up sufficient for the purposes of
defence.  Demosthenes undertook to garrison the place; and five
ships and 200 hoplites were left behind with him.

This insult to the Lacedaemonian territory caused great alarm and
indignation at Sparta.  The Peloponnesian fleet was ordered to
Pylus; and the Lacedaemonian commander, on arriving with the
fleet, immediately occupied the small uninhabited and densely
wooded island of Sphacteria, which, with the exception of two
narrow channels on the north and south, almost blocked up the
entrance of the bay.  Between the island and the mainland was a
spacious basin, in which the fleet took up its station.  The
Lacedaemonians lost no time in attacking the fortress; but
notwithstanding their repeated attempts they were unable to
effect a landing.

Whilst they were preparing for another assault, they were
surprised by the appearance of the Athenian fleet.  They had
strangely neglected to secure the entrances into the bay:  and,
when the Athenian ships came sailing through both the undefended
channels, many of their triremes were still moored, and part of
their crews ashore.  The battle which ensued was desperate.  Both
sides fought with extraordinary valour; but victory at length
declared for the Athenians.  Five Peloponnesian ships were
captured; the rest were saved only by running them ashore, where
they were protected by the Lacedaemonian army.

The Athenians, thus masters of the sea, were enabled to blockade
the island of Sphacteria, in which the flower of the
Lacedaemonian army was shut up, many of them native Spartans of
the highest families.  In so grave an emergency messengers were
sent to Sparta for advice.  The Ephors themselves immediately
repaired to the spot; and so desponding was their view of the
matter, that they saw no issue from it but a peace.  They
therefore proposed and obtained an armistice for the purpose of
opening negotiations at Athens.  But the Athenians, at the
instigation of Cleon, insisted upon the most extravagant demands,
and hostilities were accordingly resumed.  They were not however
attended with any decisive result.  The blockade of Sphacteria
began to grow tedious and harassing.  The force upon it
continually received supplies of provisions either from swimmers,
who towed skins filled with linseed and poppy-seed mixed with
honey, or from Helots, who, induced by the promise of large
rewards, eluded the blockading squadron during dark and stormy
nights, and landed cargoes on the back of the island.  The
summer, moreover, was fast wearing away, and the storms of winter
might probably necessitate the raising of the blockade
altogether.  Under these circumstances, Demosthenes began to
contemplate a descent upon the island; with which view he sent a
message to Athens to explain the unfavourable state of the
blockade, and to request further assistance.

These tidings were very distasteful to the Athenians, who had
looked upon Sphacteria as their certain prey.  They began to
regret having let slip the favourable opportunity for making a
peace, and to vent their displeasure upon Cleon, the director of
their conduct on that occasion.  But Cleon put on a face of
brass.  He abused the Strategi.  His political opponent, Nicias,
was then one of those officers, a man of quiet disposition and
moderate abilities, but thoroughly honest and incorruptible.  Him
Cleon now singled out for his vituperation, and, pointing at him
with his finger, exclaimed--"It would be easy enough to take the
island if our generals were MEN.  If I were General, I would do
it at once!"  This burst of the tanner made the assembly laugh.
He was saluted with cries of "Why don't you go, then?"  and
Nicias, thinking probably to catch his opponent in his own trap,
seconded the voice of the assembly by offering to place at his
disposal whatever force he might deem necessary for the
enterprise.  Cleon at first endeavoured to avoid the dangerous
honour thus thrust upon him.  But the more he drew back the
louder were the assembly in calling upon him to accept the
office; and as Nicias seriously repeated his proposition, he
adopted with a good grace what there was no longer any
possibility of evading, and asserted that he would take
Sphacteria within twenty days, and either kill all the
Lacedaemonians upon it, or bring them prisoners to Athens.

Never did general set out upon an enterprise under circumstances
more singular; but, what was still more extraordinary, fortune
enabled him to make his promise good.  In fact, as we have seen,
Demosthenes had already resolved on attacking the island; and
when Cleon arrived at Pylus he found everything prepared for the
assault.  Accident favoured the enterprise.  A fire kindled by
some Athenian sailors, who had landed for the purpose of cooking
their dinner, caught and destroyed the woods with which the
island was overgrown, and thus deprived the Lacedaemonians of one
of their principal defences.  Nevertheless such was the awe
inspired by the reputation of the Spartan army that Demosthenes
considered it necessary to land about 10,000 soldiers of
different descriptions, although the Lacedaemonian force
consisted of only about 420 men.  But this small force for a long
while kept their assailants at bay; till some Messenians,
stealing round by the sea-shore, over crags and cliffs which the
Lacedaemonians had deemed impracticable, suddenly appeared on the
high ground which overhung their rear.  They now began to give
way, and would soon have been all slain; but Cleon and
Demosthenes, being anxious to carry them prisoners to Athens,
sent a herald to summon them to surrender.  The latter, in token
of compliance, dropped their shields, and waved their hands above
their heads.  They requested, however, permission to communicate
with their countrymen on the mainland; who, after two or three
communications, sent them a final message--"to take counsel for
themselves, but to do nothing disgraceful."  The survivors then
surrendered.  They were 292 in number, 120 of whom were native
Spartans belonging to the first families.  By this surrender the
prestige of the Spartan arms was in a great degree destroyed.
The Spartans were not, indeed, deemed invincible; but their
previous feats, especially at Thermopylae, had inspired the
notion that they would rather die than yield; an opinion which
could now no longer be entertained.

Cleon had thus performed his promise.  On the day after the
victory he and Demosthenes started with the prisoners for Athens,
where they arrived within 20 days from the time of Cleon's
departure.  Altogether, this affair was one of the most
favourable for the Athenians that had occurred during the war.
The prisoners would serve not only for a guarantee against future
invasions, which might be averted by threatening to put them to
death, but also as a means for extorting advantageous conditions
whenever a peace should be concluded.  Nay, the victory itself
was of considerable importance, since it enabled the Athenians to
place Pylus in a better posture of defence, and, by garrisoning
it with Messenians from Naupactus, to create a stronghold whence
Laconia might be overrun and ravaged at pleasure.  The
Lacedaemonians themselves were so sensible of these things, that
they sent repeated messages to Athens to propose a peace, but
which the Athenians altogether disregarded.

The eighth year of the war (B.C. 424) opened with brilliant
prospects for the Athenians.  Elate with their continued good
fortune, they aimed at nothing less than the recovery of all the
possessions which they had held before the Thirty Years' Truce.
for this purpose they planned an expedition against Boeotia.  But
their good fortune had now reached its culminatiug point.  They
were defeated by the Boeotians with great loss at the battle of
Delium, which was the greatest and most decisive engagement
fought during the first period of the war an interesting feature
of the battle is that both Socrates and his pupil Alcibiades were
engaged in it, the former among the hoplites, the latter in the
cavalry.  Socrates distinguished himself by his bravery, and was
one of those who, instead of throwing down their arms, kept
together in a compact body, and repulsed the attacks of the
pursuing horse.  His retreat was also protected by Alcibiades.

This disastrous battle was speedily followed by the overthrow of
the Athenian empire in Thrace.  At the request of Perdiccas, King
of Macedonia, and of the Chalcidian towns, who had sued for help
against the Athenians, Brasidas was sent by the Lacedaemonian
government into Macedonia, at the head of a small body of troops.
On his arrival in Macedonia he proclaimed that he was come to
deliver the Grecian cities from the tyrannous yoke of Athens.
His bravery, his kind and conciliating demeanour, his probity,
moderation, and good faith, soon gained him the respect and love
of the allies of Athens in that quarter.  Acanthus and Stagirus
hastened to open their gates to him; and early in the ensuing
winter, by means of forced marches, he suddenly and unexpectedly
appeared before the important Athenian colony of Amphipolis on
the Strymon.  In that town the Athenian party sent a message for
assistance to Thucydides, the historian, who was then general in
those parts.  Thucydides hastened with seven ships from Thasos,
and succeeded in securing Eion at the mouth of the Strymon; but
Amphipolis, which lay a little higher up the river, allured by
the favourable terms offered, had already surrendered to
Brasidas.  For his want of vigilance on this occasion, Thucydides
was, on the motion of Cleon, sentenced to banishment, and spent
the following twenty years of his life in exile.  Torone, Scione,
and other towns also revolted from Athens.

In the following year (B.C. 422) Cleon was sent to Macedonia to
recover the Athenian dependencies, and especially Amphipolis.  He
encamped on a rising ground on the eastern side of the town.
Having deserted the peaceful art of dressing hides for the more
hazardous trade of war, in which he was almost totally
inexperienced, and having now no Demosthenes to direct his
movements, Cleon was thrown completely off his guard by a very
ordinary stratagem on the part of Brasidas, who contrived to give
the town quite a deserted and peaceful appearance.  Cleon
suffered his troops to fall into disorder, till he was suddenly
surprised by the astounding news that Brasidas was preparing for
a sally.  Cleon at once resolved to retreat.  But his skill was
equal to his valour.  He conducted his retreat in the most
disorderly manner.  His left wing had already filed off and his
centre with straggling ranks was in the act of following, when
Brasidas ordered the gates of the town to be flung open, and,
rushing out at the head of only 150 chosen soldiers, charged the
retreating columns in flank.  They were immediately routed; but
Brasidas received a mortal wound and was carried off the field.
Though his men were forming on the hill, Cleon fled as fast as he
could on the approach of the enemy, but was pursued and slain by
a Thracian peltast.  In spite, however, of the disgraceful flight
of their general, the right wing maintained their ground for a
considerable time, till some cavalry and peltasts issuing from
Amphipolis attacked them in flank and rear, and compelled them to
fly.  On assembling again at Eion it was found that half the
Athenian hoplites had been slain.  Brasidas was carried into
Amphipolis, and lived long enough to receive the tidings of his
victory.  He was interred within the walls with great military
pomp in the centre of what thenceforth became the chief agora; he
was proclaimed oecist, or founder of the town; and was worshipped
as a hero with annual games and sacrifices.

By the death of Brasidas and Cleon the two chief obstacles to a
peace were removed; for the former loved war for the sake of its
glory, the latter for the handle which it afforded for agitation
and for attacking his political opponents.  The Athenian Nicias,
and the Spartan king Pleistoanax, zealously forwarded the
negotiations, and in the spring of the year B.C. 421 a peace for
50 years, commonly called the PEACE OF NICIAS, was concluded on
the basis of a mutual restitution of prisoners and places
captured during the war.



Several of the allies of Sparta were dissatisfied with the peace
which she had concluded; and soon afterwards some of them
determined to revive the ancient pretensions of Argos, and to
make her the head of a new confederacy, which should include all
Greece, with the exception of Sparta and Athens.  The movement
was begun by the Corinthians, and the league was soon joined by
the Eleans, the Mantineans, and the Chalcidians.

Between Sparta and Athens themselves matters were far from being
on a satisfactory footing.  Sparta confessed her inability to
compel the Boeotians and Corinthians to accede to the peace, or
even to restore the town of Amphipolis.  Athens consequently
refused to evacuate Pylus, though she removed the Helots and
Messenians from it.  In the negotiations which ensued respecting
the surrender of Pylus, Alcibiades took a prominent part.  This
extraordinary man had already obtained immense influence at
Athens.  Young, rich, handsome, profligate, and clever,
Alcibiades was the very model of an Athenian man of fashion.  In
lineage he was a striking contrast to the plebeian orators of the
day.  He traced his paternal descent from Ajax, whilst on his
mother's side he claimed relationship with the Alcmaeonidae and
consequently with Pericles.  On the death of his father Clinias
Pericles had become his guardian.  From early youth the conduct
of Alcibiades was marked by violence, recklessness, and vanity.
He delighted in astonishing the more sober portion of the
citizens by his capricious and extravagant feats.  He was utterly
destitute of morality, whether public or private.  But his vices
were partly redeemed by some brilliant qualities.  He possessed
both boldness of design and vigour of action; and, though
scarcely more than thirty at the time of which we are now
speaking, he had already on several occasions distinguished
himself by his bravery.  His more serious studies were made
subservient to the purposes of his ambition, for which some skill
as an orator was necessary.  In order to attain it he frequented
the schools of the sophists, and exercised himself in the
dialectics of Prodicus, Protagoras, and above all of Socrates.

Such was the man who now opposed the application of the
Lacedaemonian ambassadors.  Their reception had been so
favourable, that Alcibiades alarmed at the prospect of their
success, resorted to a trick in order to defeat it.  He called
upon the Lacedaemonian envoys, one of whom happened to be his
personal friend; and he advised them not to tell the Assembly
that they were furnished with full powers, as in that case the
people would bully them into extravagant concessions, but rather
to say that they were merely come to discuss and report.  He
promised, if they did so, to speak in their favour, and induce
the Assembly to grant the restitution of Pylus, to which he
himself had hitherto been the chief obstacle.  Accordingly on the
next day, when the ambassadors were introduced into the Assembly,
Alcibiades, assuming his blandest tone and most winning smile,
asked them on what footing they came and what were their powers.
In reply to these questions, the ambassadors, who only a day or
two before had told Nicias and the Senate that they were come as
plenipotentiaries, now publicly declared, in the face of the
Assembly, that they were not authorized to conclude, but only to
negotiate and discuss.  At this announcement, those who had heard
their previous declaration could scarcely believe their ears.  A
universal burst of indignation broke forth at this exhibition of
Spartan duplicity; whilst, to wind up the scene, Alcibiades,
affecting to be more surprised than any, distinguished himself by
being the loudest and bitterest in his invectives against the
perfidy of the Lacedaemonians.

Shortly afterwards Alcibiades procured the completion of a treaty
of alliance for 100 years with Argos, Elis, and Mantinea (B.C.
420).  Thus were the Grecian states involved in a complicity of
separate and often apparently opposite alliances.  It was evident
that allies so heterogeneous could not long hold together;
nevertheless, nominally at least, peace was at first observed.

In the July which followed the treaty with Argos, the Olympic
games, which recurred every fourth year, were to be celebrated.
The Athenians had been shut out by the war from the two previous
celebrations; and curiosity was excited throughout Greece to see
what figure Athens would make at this great Pan-Hellenic
festival.  War, it was surmised, must have exhausted her
resources, and would thus prevent her from appearing with
becoming splendour.  But from this reproach she was rescued by
the wealth and vanity, if not by the patriotism, of Alcibiades.
By his care, the Athenian deputies exhibited the richest display
of golden ewers, censers, and other plate to be used in the
public sacrifice and procession; whilst for the games he entered
in his own name no fewer than the unheard-of number of seven
four-horsed chariots, of which one gained the first, and another
the second prize.  Alcibiades was consequently twice crowned with
the olive, and twice proclaimed victor by the herald.

The growing ambition and success of Alcibiades prompted him to
carry his schemes against Sparta into the very heart of
Peloponnesus, without, however, openly violating the peace.

The Lacedaemonians now found it necessary to act with more
vigour; and accordingly in B.C. 418 they assembled a very large
army, under the command of the Spartan king, Agis.  A decisive
battle was fought near Mantinea, in which Agis gained a brilliant
victory over the Argives and their allies.  This battle and that
of Delium were the two most important engagements that had yet
been fought in the Peloponnesian war.  Although the Athenians had
fought on the side of the Argives at Mantinea, the peace between
Sparta and Athens continued to be nominally observed.

In B.C. 416 the Athenians attacked and conquered Melos, which
island and Thera were the only islands in the AEgean not subject
to the Athenian supremacy.  The Melians having rejected all the
Athenian overtures for a voluntary submission, their capital was
blockaded by sea and land, and after a siege of some months
surrendered.  On the proposal, as it appears, of Alcibiades, all
the adult males were put to death, the women and children sold
into slavery, and the island colonized afresh by 500 Athenians.
This horrible proceeding was the more indefensible, as the
Athenians, having attacked the Melians in full peace, could not
pretend that they were justified by the custom of war in slaying
the prisoners.  It was the crowning act of insolence and cruelty
displayed during their empire, which from this period began
rapidly to decline.

The event destined to produce that catastrophe--the intervention
of the Athenians in the affairs of Sicily--was already in
progress.  A quarrel had broken out between Egesta and Selinus,
both which cities were seated near the western extremity of
Sicily; and Selinus, having obtained the aid of Syracuse, was
pressing very hard upon the Egestaeans.  The latter appealed to
the interests of the Athenians rather than to their sympathies.
They represented how great a blow it would be to Athens if the
Dorians became predominant in Sicily, and joined the
Peloponnesian confederacy; and they undertook, if the Athenians
would send an armament to their assistance, to provide the
necessary funds for the prosecution of the war.  Their most
powerful advocate was Alcibiades, whose ambitious views are said
to have extended even to the conquest of Carthage.  The quieter
and more prudent Nicias and his party threw their weight into the
opposite scale.  But the Athenian assembly, dazzled by the idea
of so splendid an enterprise, decided on despatching a large
fleet under Nicias, Alcibiades, and Lamachus, with the design of
assisting Egesta, and of establishing the influence of Athens
throughout Sicily, by whatever means might be found practicable.

For the next three months the preparations for the undertaking
were pressed on with the greatest ardour.  Young and old, rich
and poor, all vied with one another to obtain a share in the
expedition.  Five years of comparative peace had accumulated a
fresh supply both of men and money; and the merchants of Athens
embarked in the enterprise as in a trading expedition.  It was
only a few of the wisest heads that escaped the general fever of
excitement, The expedition was on the point of sailing, when a
sudden and mysterious event converted all these exulting feelings
into gloomy foreboding.

At every door in Athens, at the corners of streets, in the market
place, before temples, gymnasia, and other public places, stood
Hermae, or statues of the god Hermes, consisting of a bust of
that deity surmounting a quadrangular pillar of marble about the
height of the human figure.  When the Athenians rose one morning
towards the end of May, 415 B.C., it was found that all these
figures had been mutilated during the night, and reduced by
unknown hands to a shapeless mass.  The act inspired political,
as well as religious, alarm.  It seemed to indicate a widespread
conspiracy, for so sudden and general a mutilation must have been
the work of many hands.  The sacrilege might only be a
preliminary attempt of some powerful citizen to seize the
despotisn, and suspicion pointed its finger at Alcibiades.
Active measures were taken and large rewards offered for the
discovery of the perpetrators.  A public board was appointed to
examine witnesses, which did not, indeed, succeed in eliciting
any facts bearing on the actual subject of inquiry, but which
obtained evidence respecting similar acts of impiety committed at
previous times in drunken frolics.  In these Alcibiades himself
was implicated; and though the fleet was on the very eve of
departure, a citizen rose in the assembly and accused Alcibiades
of having profaned the Eleusinian mysteries by giving a
representation of them in a private house, producing in evidence
the testimony of a slave.  Alcibiades denied the accusation, and
implored the people to have it investigated at once.  His
enemies, however, had sufficient influence to get the inquiry
postponed till his return; thus keeping the charge hanging over
his head, and gaining time to poison the public mind against him.

The Athenian fleet, consisting of 100 triremes, and having on
board 1500 chosen Athenian hoplites, as well as auxiliaries, at
length set sail, and proceeded to Corcyra, where it was joined by
the other allies in the month of July, 415 B.C.  Upon arriving at
Rhegium the generals received the discouraging news that Egesta
was unable to contribute more than thirty talents.  A council of
war was now held; and it was finally resolved to gain as many
allies as they could among the Greek cities in Sicily, and,
having thus ascertained what assistance they could rely upon, to
attack Syracuse and Selinus.

Naxos joined the Athenians, and shortly afterwards they obtained
possession by surprise of the important city of Catana, which was
now made the head-quarters of the armament.  Here an unwelcome
message greeted Alcibiades.  after his departure from Athens,
Thessalus, the son of Cimon, preferred an indictment against him
in consequence of his profanation of the Eleusinian mysteries.
The Salaminian, or state, trireme was despatched to Sicily,
carrying the decree of the assembly for Alcibiades to come home
and take his trial.  The commander of the Salaminia was, however,
instructed not to seize his person, but to allow him to sail in
his own trireme.  Alcibiades availed himself of this privilege to
effect his escape.  When the ships arrived at Thurii in Italy, he
absconded, and contrived to elude the search that was made after
him, Nevertheless, though absent, he was arraigned at Athens, and
condemned to death; his property was confiscated; and the
Eumolpidae, who presided ever the celebration of the Eleusinian
mysteries, pronounced upon him the curses of the gods.  On
hearing of his sentence Alcibiades is said to have exclaimed, "I
will show them that I am still alive."

Three months had now been frittered away in Sicily, during which
the Athenians had done little or nothing, if we except the
acquisition of Naxos and Catana.  Nicias now resolved to make an
attempt upon Syracuse.  By a false message that the Catanaeans
were ready to assist in expelling the Athenians, he induced the
Syracusans to proceed thither in great force, and he availed
himself of their absence to sail with his whole fleet into the
Great Harbour of Syracuse, where he landed near the mouth of the
Anapus.  The Syracusans, when they found that they had been
deceived at Catana, marched back and offered Nicias battle in his
new position.  The latter accepted it, and gained the victory;
after which he retired to Catana, and subsequently to Naxos into
winter quarters.

The Syracusans employed the winter in preparations for defence.
They also despatched envoys to Corinth and Sparta to solicit
assistance, in the latter of which towns they found an unexpected
advocate.  Alcibiades, having crossed from Thurii to Cyllene in
Peloponnesus, received a special invitation to proceed to Sparta.
Here he revealed all the plans of Athens, and exhorted the
Lacedaemonians to frustrate them.  For this purpose he advised
them to send an army into Sicily, under the command of a Spartan
general, and, by way of causing a diversion, to establish a
fortified post at Decelea in the Attic territory.  The Spartans
fell in with these views, and resolved to send a force to the
assistance of Syracuse in the spring, under the command of

Nicias, having received reinforcements from Athens, recommenced
hostilities as soon as the season allowed of it, and resolved on
besieging Syracuse.  That town consisted of two parts--the inner
and the outer city.  The former of these--the original settlement
was comprised in the island of Ortygia; the latter afterwards
known by the name of Achradina, covered the high ground of the
peninsula north of Ortygia, and was completely separate from the
inner city.  The island of Ortygia, to which the modern city is
now confined, is of an oblong shape, about two miles in
circumference, lying between the Great Harbour on the west, and
the Little Harbour on the east, and separated from the mainland
by a narrow channel.  The Great Harbour is a splendid bay, about
five miles in circumference, and the Little Harbour was spacious
enough to receive a large fleet of ships of war.  The outer city
was surrounded on the north and east by the sea and by sea-walls
which rendered an assault on that side almost impracticable.  On
the land side it was defended by a wall, and partly also by the
nature of the ground, which in some part was very steep.  West
and north-west of the wall of the outer city stood two
unfortified suburbs, which were at a later time included within
the walls of Syracuse under the names of Tyche and Neapolis.
Between these two suburbs the ground rose in a gentle acclivity
to the summit of the ranges of hills called Epipolae.

It was from the high ground of Epipolae that Syracuse was most
exposed to attack.  Nicias landed at Leon, a place upon the bay
of Thapsus, at the distance of only six or seven stadia from
Epipolae, took possession of Epipolae, and erected on the summit
a fort called Labdalum.  Then coming farther down the hill
towards Syracuse, he built another fort of a circular form and of
considerable size at a place called Syke.  From the latter point
he commenced his line of circumvallation, one wall extending
southwards from Syke to the Great Harbour, and the other wall
running northwards to the outer sea.  The Athenians succeeded in
completing the circumvallation towards the south, but in one of
their many engagements with the Syracusans they lost the gallant
Lamachus.  At the same time, the Athenian fleet entered the Great
Harbour, where it was henceforth permanently established.  The
northern wall was never completed, and through the passage thus
left open the besieged continued to obtain provisions.  Nicias,
who, by the death of Lamachus, had become sole commander, seemed
now on the point of succeeding.  The Syracusans were so sensible
of their inferiority in the field that they no longer ventured to
show themselves outside the walls.  They began to contemplate
surrender, and even sent messages to Nicias to treat of the
terms.  This caused the Athenian commander to indulge in a false
confidence of success, and consequent apathy; and the army having
lost the active and energetic Lamachus, operations were no longer
carried on with the requisite activity.

It was in this state of affairs that the Spartan commander,
Gylippus, passed over into Italy with a little squadron of four
ships, with the view merely of preserving the Greek cities in
that country, supposing that Syracuse, and, with her, the other
Greek cities in Sicily, were irretrievably lost.  At Tarentum he
learned to his great surprise and satisfaction that the Athenian
wall of circumvallation at Syracuse had not yet been completed on
the northern side.  He now sailed through the straits of Messana,
which were left completely unguarded, and arrived safely at
Himera on the north coast of Sicily.  Here he announced himself
as the forerunner of larger succours, and began to levy an army
which the magic of the Spartan name soon enabled him to effect;
and in a few days he was in a condition to march towards Syracuse
with about 3000 men.  The Syracusans now dismissed all thoughts
of surrender, and went out boldly to meet Gylippus, who marched
into Syracuse over the heights of Epipolae, which the supineness
of Nicias had left unguarded.  Upon arriving in the city,
Gylippus sent a message to the Athenians allowing them a five
days' truce to collect their effects and evacuate the island.
Nicias returned no answer to this insulting proposal; but the
operations of Gylippus soon showed that the tide of affairs was
really turned.  His first exploit was to capture the Athenian
fort at Labdalum, which made him master of Epipolae.  He next
commenced constructing a counter-wall to intersect the Athenian
lines on the northern side.  This turn of affairs induced those
Sicilian cities which had hitherto hesitated to embrace the side
of Syracuse.  Gylippus was also reinforced by the arrival of
thirty triremes from Corinth, Leucas, and Ambracia.  Nicias now
felt that the attempt to blockade Syracuse with his present force
was hopeless.  He therefore resolved to occupy the headland of
Plemmyrium, the southernmost point of the entrance to the Great
Harbour, which would be a convenient station for watching the
enemy, as well as for facilitating the introduction of supplies.
Here he accordingly erected three forts and formed a naval
station.  Some slight affairs occurred in which the balance of
advantage was in favour of the Syracusans.  By their change of
station the Athenians were now a besieged rather than a besieging
force.  Their triremes were becoming leaky, and their soldiers
and sailors were constantly deserting.  Nicias himself had fallen
into a bad state of health; and in this discouraging posture of
affairs he wrote to Athens requesting to he recalled, and
insisting strongly on the necessity of sending reinforcements.

The Athenians refused to recall Nicias, but they determined on
sending a large reinforcement to Sicily, under the joint command
of Demosthenes and Eurymedon.  The news of these fresh and
extensive preparations incited the Lacedaemonians to more
vigorous action.  The peace, if such it can be called, was now
openly broken; and in the spring of 413 B.C. the Lacedaemonians,
under King Agis, invaded Attica itself, and, following the advice
of Alcibiades, established themselves permanently at Decelia, a
place situated on the ridge of Mount Parnes about 14 miles north
of Athens, and commanding the Athenian plain.  The city was thus
placed in a state of siege.  Scarcity began to be felt within the
walls; the revenues were falling off, whilst on the other hand
expenses were increasing.

Meanwhile in Sicily the Syracusans had gained such confidence
that they even ventured on a naval engagement with the Athenians.
In the first battle the Athenians were victorious, but the second
battle, which lasted two days, ended in their defeat.  They were
now obliged to haul up their ships in the innermost part of the
Great Harbour, under the lines of their fortified camp.  A still
more serious disaster than the loss of the battle was the loss of
their naval reputation.  It was evident that the Athenians had
ceased to be invincible on the sea; and the Syracusans no longer
despaired of overcoming them on their own element.

Such was the state of affairs when, to the astonishment of the
Syracusans, a fresh Athenian fleet of 75 triremes, under
Demosthenes and Eurymedon, entered the Great Harbour with all the
pomp and circumstance of war.  It had on board a force of 5000
hoplites, of whom about a quarter were Athenians, and a great
number of light-armed troops.  The active and enterprising
character of Demosthenes led him to adopt more vigorous measures
than those which had been hitherto pursued.  He saw at once that
whilst Epipolae remained in the possession of the Syracusans
there was no hope of taking their city, and he therefore directed
all his efforts to the recapture of that position.  But his
attempts were unavailing.  He was defeated not only in an open
assault upon the Syracusan wall, but in a nocturnal attempt to
carry it by surprise.  These reverses were aggravated by the
breaking out of sickness among the troops.  Demosthenes now
proposed to return home and assist in expelling the
Lacedaemonians from Attica, instead of pursuing an enterprise
which seemed to be hopeless.  But Nicias, who feared to return to
Athens with the stigma of failure, refused to give his consent to
this step.  Demosthenes then urged Nicias at least to sail
immediately out of the Great Harbour, and take up their position
either at Thapsus or Catana, where they could obtain abundant
supplies of provisions, and would have an open sea for the
manoeuvres of their fleet.  But even to this proposal Nicias
would not consent; and the army and navy remained in their former
position.  Soon afterwards, however, Gylippus received such large
reinforcements, that Nicias found it necessary to adopt the
advice of his colleague.  Preparations were secretly made for
their departure, the enemy appear to have had no suspicion of
their intention and they were on the point of quitting their ill-
fated quarters on the following morning, when on the very night
before (27 Aug. 413 B.C.) an eclipse of the moon took place.  The
soothsayers who were consulted said that the army must wait
thrice nine days, a full circle of the moon, before it could quit
its present position; and the devout and superstitious Nicias
forthwith resolved to abide by this decision.

Meanwhile the intention of the Athenians became known to the
Syracusans, who determined to strike a blow before their enemy
escaped.  They accordingly attacked the Athenian station both by
sea and land.  On land the attack of Gylippus was repulsed; but
at sea the Athenian fleet was completely defeated, and Eurymedon,
who commanded the right division, was slain The spirits of the
Symcusans rose with their victories; and though they would
formerly have been content with the mere retreat of the
Athenians, they now resolved on effecting their utter
destruction.  With this view they blocked up the entrance of the
Great Harbour with a line of vessels moored across it.  All hope
seemed now to be cut off from the Athenians, unless they could
succeed in forcing this line and thus effecting their escape.
The Athenian fleet still numbered 110 triremes, which Nicias
furnished with grappling-irons, in order to bring the enemy to
close quarters, and then caused a large proportion of his land-
force to embark.

Never perhaps was a battle fought under circumstances of such
intense interest, or witnessed by so many spectators vitally
concerned in the result.  The basin of the Great Harbour, about 5
miles in circumference, in which nearly 200 ships, each with
crews of more than 200 men, were about to engage, was lined with
spectators.  The Syracusan fleet was the first to leave the
shore.  A considerable portion was detached to guard the barrier
at the mouth of the harbour.  Hither the first and most impetuous
attack of the Athenians was directed, who sought to break through
the narrow opening which had been left for the passage of
merchant vessels.  Their onset was repulsed, and the battle then
became general.  The shouts of the combatants, and the crash of
the iron heads of the vessels as they were driven together,
resounded over the water, and were answered on shore by the
cheers or wailings of the spectators as their friends were
victorious or vanquished.  For a long time the battle was
maintained with heroic courage and dubious result.  At length, as
the Athenian vessels began to yield and make back towards the
shore, a universal shriek of horror and despair arose from the
Athenian army, whilst shouts of joy and victory were raised from
the pursuing vessels, and were echoed back from the Syracusans on
land.  As the Athenian vessels neared the shore their crews
leaped out, and made for the camp, whilst the boldest of the land
army rushed forward to protect the ships from being seized by the
enemy.  The Athenians succeeded in saving only 60 ships, or about
half their fleet.  The Syracusan fleet, however, had been reduced
to 50 ships; and on the same afternoon, Nicias and Demosthenes,
as a last hope of escape, exhorted their men to make another
attempt to break the enemy's line, and force their way out of the
harbour.  But the courage of the crews was so completely damped
that they positively refused to re-embark.

The Athenian army still numbered 40,000 men; and as all chance of
escape by sea was now hopeless, it was resolved to retreat by
land to some friendly city, and there defend themselves against
the attacks of the Syracusans.  As the soldiers turned to quit
that fatal encampment, the sense of their own woes was for a
moment suspended by the sight of their unburied comrades, who
seemed to reproach them with the neglect of a sacred duty; but
still more by the wailings and entreaties of the wounded, who
clung around their knees, and implored not to be abandoned to
certain destruction.  Amid this scene of universal woe and
dejection, a fresh and unwonted spirit of energy and heroism
seemed to be infused into Nicias.  Though suffering under an
incurable complaint, he was everywhere seen marshalling his
troops and encouraging them by his exhortations.  The march was
directed towards the territory of the Sicels in the interior of
the island.  The army was formed into a hollow square with the
baggage in the middle; Nicias leading the van, and Demosthenes
bringing up the rear.  The road ascended by a sort of ravine over
a steep hill called the Acraean cliff on which the Syracusans had
fortified themselves.  After spending two days in vain attempts
to force this position, Nicias and Demosthenes resolved during
the night to strike off to the left towards the sea.  But they
were overtaken, surrounded by superior forces, and compelled to
surrender at discretion.  Out of the 40,000 who started from the
camp only 10,000 at the utmost were left at the end of the sixth
day's march, the rest had either deserted or been slain.  The
prisoners were sent to work in the stone-quarries of Achradina
and Epipolae.  Here they were crowded together without any
shelter, and with scarcely provisions enough to sustain life.
The numerous bodies of those who died were left to putrify where
they had fallen, till at length the place became such an
intolerable centre of stench and infection that, at the end of
seventy days, the Syracusans, for their own comfort and safety,
were obliged to remove the survivors, who were sold as slaves.
Nicias and Demosthenes were condemned to death in spite of all
the efforts of Gylippus and Hermocrates to save them.

Such was the end of two of the largest and best appointed
armaments that had ever gone forth from Athens.  Nicias, as we
have seen, was from the first opposed to the expedition in which
they were employed, as pregnant with the most dangerous
consequences to Athens; and, though it must be admitted that in
this respect his views were sound, it cannot at the same time be
concealed that his own want of energy, and his incompetence as a
general, were the chief causes of the failure of the undertaking.
His mistakes involved the fall of Demosthenes, an officer of far
greater resolution and ability than himself, and who, had his
counsels been followed, would in all probability have conducted
the enterprise to a safe termination, though there was no longer
room to hope for success.



The destruction of the Sicilian armament was a fatal blow to the
power of Athens.  It is astonishing that she was able to protract
the war so long with diminished strength and resources.  Her
situation inspired her enemies with new vigour; states hitherto
neutral declared against her; her subject-allies prepared to
throw off the yoke; even the Persian satraps and the court of
Susa bestirred themselves against her.  The first blow to her
empire was struck by the wealthy and populous island of Chios.
This again was the work of Alcibiades, the implacable enemy of
his native land, at whose advice a Lacedaemonian fleet was sent
to the assistance of the Chians.  Their example was followed by
all the other Athenian allies in Asia, with the exception of
Samos, in which the democratical party gained the upper hand.  In
the midst of this general defection the Athenians did not give
way to despair.  Pericles had set apart a reserve of 1000 talents
to meet the contingency of an actual invasion.  This still
remained untouched, and now by an unanimous vote the penalty of
death, which forbad its appropriation to any other purpose, was
abolished, and the fund applied in fitting out a fleet against
Chios.  Samos became the head-quarters of the fleet, and the base
of their operations during the remainder of the war.

After a time the tide of success began to turn in favour of the
Athenians.  They recovered Lesbos and Clazomenae, defeated the
Chians, and laid waste their territory.  They also gained a
victory over the Peloponnesians at Miletus; while the
Peloponnesian fleet had lost the assistance of Tissaphernes, the
Persian satrap, through the intrigues of Alcibiades.  In the
course of a few months Alcibiades had completely forfeited the
confidence of the Lacedaemonians.  The Spartan king Agis, whose
wife he had seduced, was his personal enemy; and after the defeat
of the Peloponnesians at Miletus, Agis denounced him as a
traitor, and persuaded the new Ephors to send out instructions to
put him to death.  Of this, however, he was informed time enough
to make his escape to Tissaphernes at Magnesia.  Here he
ingratiated himself into the confidence of the satrap, and
persuaded him that it was not for the interest of Persia that
either of the Grecian parties should be successful, but rather
that they should wear each other out in their mutual struggles,
when Persia would in the end succeed in expelling both.  This
advice was adopted by the satrap; and in order to carry it into
execution, steps were taken to secure the inactivity of the
Peloponnesian armament, which, if vigorously employed, was
powerful enough to put a speedy end to the war.  In order to
secure his return to Athens, Alcibiades now endeavoured to
persuade Tissaphernes that it was more for the Persian interest
to conclude a league with Athens than with Sparta; but the only
part of his advice which the satrap seems to have sincerely
adopted was that of playing off one party against the other.
About this, however, Alcibiades did not at all concern himself.
It was enough for his views, which had merely the selfish aim of
his own restoration to Athens, if he could make it appear that he
possessed sufficient influence with Tissaphernes to procure his
assistance for the Athenians.  He therefore began to communicate
with the Athenian generals at Samos, and held out the hope of a
Persian alliance as the price of his restoration to his country.
But as he both hated and feared the Athenian democracy, he
coupled his offer with the condition that a revolution should be
effected at Athens, and an oligarchy established.  The Athenian
generals greedily caught at the proposal; and though the great
mass of the soldiery were violently opposed to it, they were
silenced, if not satisfied, when told that Athens could be saved
only by means of Persia.  The oligarchical conspirators formed
themselves into a confederacy, and Pisander was sent to Athens to
lay the proposal before the Athenian assembly.  It met, as it
might be supposed, with the most determined opposition.  The
single but unanswerable reply of Pisander was, the necessities of
the republic; and at length a reluctant vote for a change of
constitution was extorted from the people.  Pisander and ten
others were despatched to treat with Alcibiades and Tissaphernes.

Upon their arrival in Ionia they informed Alcibiades that
measures had been taken for establishing an oligarchical form of
government at Athens, and required him to fulfil his part of the
engagement by procuring the aid and alliance of Persia.  But
Alcibiades knew that he had undertaken what he could not perform,
and he now resolved to escape from the dilemma by one of his
habitual artifices.  He received the Athenian deputation in the
presence of Tissaphernes himself, and made such extravagant
demands on behalf of the satrap that Pisander and his colleagues
indignantly broke off the conference.

Notwithstanding the conduct of Alcibiades the oligarchical
conspirators proceeded with the revolution at Athens, in which
they had gone too far to recede.  Pisander, with five of the
envoys, returned to Athens to complete the work they had begun.

Pisander proposed in the assembly, and carried a resolution, that
a committee of ten should be appointed to prepare a new
constitution, which was to be submitted to the approbation of the
people.  But when the day appointed for that purpose arrived, the
assembly was not convened in the Pnyx, but in the temple of
Poseidon at Colonus, a village upwards of a mile from Athens.
Here the conspirators could plant their own partisans, and were
less liable to be overawed by superior numbers.  Pisander
obtained the assent of the meeting to the following revolutionary
changes:--1. The abolition of all the existing magistracies;  2.
The cessation of all payments for the discharge of civil
functions;  3. The appointment of a committee of five persons,
who were to name ninety-five more; each of the hundred thus
constituted to choose three persons; the body of Four Hundred
thus formed to be an irresponsible government, holding its
sittings in the senate house.  The four hundred were to convene a
select body of five thousand citizens whenever they thought
proper.  Nobody knew who these five thousand were, but they
answered two purposes, namely, to give an air of greater
popularity to the government, as well as to overawe the people by
an exaggerated notion of its strength.

Thus perished the Athenian democracy, after an existence of
nearly a century since its establishment by Clisthenes The
revolution was begun from despair of the foreign relations of
Athens, and from the hope of assistance from Persia; but it was
carried out through the machinations of the conspirators after
that delusion had ceased.

At Samos the Athenian army refused to recognise the new
government.  At the instance of Thrasybulus and Thrasyllus a
meeting was called in which the soldiers pledged themselves to
maintain the democracy, to continue the war against Peloponnesus,
and to put down the usurpers at Athens.  The soldiers, laying
aside for a while their military character, constituted
themselves into an assembly of the people, deposed several of
their officers, and appointed others whom they could better
trust.  Thrasybulus proposed the recall of Alcibiades,
notwithstanding his connection with the oligarchical conspiracy,
because it was believed that he was now able and willing to aid
the democratic cause with the gold and forces of Persia.  After
considerable opposition the proposal was agreed to; Alcibiades
was brought to Samos and introduced to the assembly, where by his
magnificent promises, and extravagant boasts respecting his
influence with Tissaphernes, he once more succeeded in deceiving
the Athenians.  The accomplished traitor was elected one of the
generals, and, in pursuance of his artful policy, began to pass
backwards and forwards between Samos and Magnesia, with the view
of inspiring both the satrap and the Athenians with a reciprocal
idea of his influence with either, and of instilling distrust of
Tissaphernes into the minds of the Peloponnesians.

At the first news of the re-establishment of democracy at Samos,
distrust and discord had broken out among the Four Hundred.
Antiphon and Phrynichus, at the head of the extreme section of
the oligarchical party, were for admitting a Lacedaemonian
garrison.  But others, discontented with their share of power,
began to affect more popular sentiments, among whom were
Theramenes and Aristocrates.  Meantime Euboea, supported by the
Lacedaemonians and Boeotians, revolted from Athens.  The loss of
this island seemed a death-blow.  The Lacedaemonians might now
easily blockade the ports of Athens and starve her into
surrender; whilst the partisans of the Four Hundred would
doubtless co-operate with the enemy.  But from this fate they
were saved by the characteristic slowness of the Lacedaemonians,
who confined themselves to securing the conquest of Euboea.  Thus
left unmolested, the Athenians convened an assembly in the Pnyx.
Votes were passed for deposing the Four Hundred, and placing the
government in the hands of the 5000, of whom every citizen who
could furnish a panoply might be a member.  In short, the old
constitution was restored, except that the franchise was
restricted to 5000 citizens, and payment for the discharge of
civil functions abolished.  In subsequent assemblies, the
Archons, the Senate, and other institutions were revived; and a
vote was passed to recall Alcibiades and some of his friends.
The number of the 5000 was never exactly observed, and was soon
enlarged into universal citizenship.  Thus the Four Hundred were
overthrown after a reign of four months, B.C. 411.

While these things were going on at Athens, the war was
prosecuted with vigour on the coast of Asia Minor.  Mindarus, who
now commanded the Peloponnesian fleet, disgusted at length by the
often-broken promises of Tissaphernes, and the scanty and
irregular pay which he furnished, set sail from Miletus and
proceeded to the Hellespont, with the intention of assisting the
satrap Pharnabazus, and of effecting, if possible, the revolt of
the Athenian dependencies in that quarter.  Hither he was pursued
by the Athenian fleet under Thrasyllus.  In a few days an
engagement ensued (in August, 411 B.C.), in the famous straits
between Sestos and Abydos, in which the Athenians, though with a
smaller force, gained the victory and erected a trophy on the
promontory of Cynossema, near the tomb and chapel of the Trojan
queen Hecuba.  The Athenians followed up their victory by the
reduction of Cyzicus, which had revolted from them.  A month or
two afterwards another obstinate engagement took place between
the Peloponnesian and Athenian fleets ness Abydos, which lasted a
whole day, and was at length decided in favour of the Athenians
by the arrival of Alcibiades with his squadron of eighteen ships
from Samos.

Shortly after the battle Tissaphernes arrived at the Hellespont
with the view of conciliating the offended Peloponnesians.  He
was not only jealous of the assistance which the latter were now
rendering to Pharnabarzus, but it is also evident that his
temporizing policy had displeased the Persian court.  This
appears from his conduct on the present occasion, as well as from
the subsequent appointment of Cyrus to the supreme command on the
Asiatic coast as we shall presently have to relate.  When
Alcibiades, who imagined that Tissaphernes was still favourable
to the Athenian cause waited on him with the customary presents,
he was arrested by order of the satrap, and sent in custody to
Sardis.  At the end of a month, however, he contrived to escape
to Clazomenae, and again joined the Athenian fleet early in the
spring of 410 B.C. Mindaras, with the assistance of Pharnabazas
on the land side, was now engaged in the siege of Cyzicus, which
the Athenian admirals determined to relieve.  Here a battle
ensued, in which Mindarus was slain, the Lacedaemonians and
Persians routed, and almost the whole Peloponnesian fleet
captured.  The severity of this blow was pictured in the laconic
epistle in which Hippocrates, the second in command, [Called
Epistoteus or "Secretary" in the Lacedaemonian fleet.  The
commander of the fleet had the title of NAVARCHUS.]  announced it
to the Ephors:  "Our good luck is gone; Mindarus is slain; the
men are starving; we know not what to do."

The results of this victory were most important.  Perinthus and
Selymbria, as well as Cyzicus, were recovered; and the Athenians,
once more masters of the Propontis, fortified the town of
Chrysopolis, over against Byzantium, at the entrance of the
Bosporus; re-established their toll of ten per cent, on all
vessels passing from the Euxine; and left a squadron to guard the
strait and collect the dues.  So great was the discouragement of
the Lacedaemonians at the loss of their fleet that the Ephor
Endius proceeded to Athens to treat for peace on the basis of
both parties standing just as they were.  The Athenian assembly
was at this time led by the demagogue Cleophon, a lamp-maker,
known to us by the later comedies of Aristophanes.  Cleophon
appears to have been a man of considerable ability; but the late
victories had inspired him with too sanguine hopes and he advised
the Athenians to reject the terms proposed by Endius.  Athens
thus throw away the golden opportunity of recruiting her
shattered forces of which she stood so much in need; and to this
unfortunate advice must be ascribed the calamities which
subsequently overtook her.

The possession of the Bosporus reopened to the Athenians the
trade of the Euxine.  From his lofty fortress at Decelea the
Spartan king Agris could descry the corn-ships from the Euxine
sailing into the Harbour of the Piraeus, and felt how fruitless
it was to occupy the fields of Attica whilst such abundant
supplies of provisions were continually finding their way to the

In B.C. 408 the important towns of Chalcedon, Selymbria, and
Byzantium fell into the hands of the Athenians, thus leaving them
undisputed masters of the Propontis.

These great achievements of Alcibiades naturally paved the way
for his return to Athens.  In the spring of 407 B.C. he proceeded
with the fleet to Samos, and from thence sailed to Piraeus.  His
reception was far more favourable than he had ventured to
anticipate.  The whole population of Athens flocked down to
Piraeus to welcome him, and escorted him to the city.  He seemed
to be in the present juncture the only man capable of restoring
the grandeur and the empire of Athens:  he was accordingly named
general with unlimited powers, and a force of 100 triremes, 1500
hoplites, and 150 cavalry placed at his disposal.  Before his
departure he took an opportunity to atone for the impiety of
which he had been suspected.  Although his armament was in
perfect readiness, he delayed its sailing till after the
celebration of the Eleusinian mysteries at the beginning of
September.  For seven years the customary procession across the
Thriasian plain had been suspended, owing to the occupation of
Decelea by the enemy, which compelled the sacred troop to proceed
by sea.  Alcibiades now escorted them on their progress and
return with his forces, and thus succeeded in reconciling himself
with the offended goddesses and with their holy priests, the

Meanwhile a great change had been going on in the state of
affairs in the East.  We have already seen that the Great King
was displeased with the vacillating policy of Tissaphernes, and
had determined to adopt more energetic measures against the
Athenians.  During the absence of Alcibiades, Cyrus, the younger
son of Darius, a prince of a bold and enterprising spirit, and
animated with a lively hatred of Athens, had arrived at the coast
for the purpose of carrying out the altered policy of the Persian
court; and with that view he had been invested with the satrapies
of Lydia, the Greater Phrygia, and Cappadocia.  The arrival of
Cyrus opens the last phase of the Peloponnesian war.  Another
event, in the highest degree unfavourable to the Athenian cause,
was the accession of Lysander, as NAVARCHUS, to the command of
the Peloponnesian fleet.  Lysander was the third of the
remarkable men whom Sparta produced during the war.  In ability,
energy, and success he may be compared with Brasidas and
Gylippus, though immeasurably inferior to the former in every
moral quality.  He was born of poor parents, and was by descent
one of those Lacedaemonians who could never enjoy the full rights
of Spartan citizenship.  His ambition was boundless, and he was
wholly unscrupulous about the means which he employed to gratify
it.  In pursuit of his objects he hesitated at neither deceit,
nor perjury, nor cruelty, and he is reported to have laid it down
as one of his maxims in life to avail himself of the fox's skin
where the lion's failed.

Lysander had taken up his station at Ephesus, with the
Lacedaemonian fleet of 70 triremes; and when Cyrus arrived at
Sardis, in the spring of 407 B.C., he hastened to pay his court
to the young prince, and was received with every mark of favour.
A vigrorous line of action was resolved on.  Cyrus at once
offered 500 talents, and affirmed that, if more were needed, he
was prepared even to coin into money the very throne of gold and
silver on which he sat.  In a banquet which ensued Cyrus drank to
the health of Lysander, and desired him to name any wish which he
could gratify.  Lysander immediately requested an addition of an
obolus to the daily pay of the seamen.  Cyrus was surprised at so
disinterested a demand, and from that day conceived a high degree
of respect and confidence for the Spartan commander.  Lysander on
his return to Ephesus employed himself in refitting his fleet,
and in organising clubs in the Spartan interest in the cities of

Alcibiades set sail from Athens in September.  Being ill provided
with funds for carrying on the war, he was driven to make
predatory excursions for the purpose of raising money.  During
his absence he intrusted the bulk of the fleet at Samos to his
pilot, Antiochus, with strict injunctions not to venture on an
action.  Notwithstanding these orders, however, Antiochus sailed
out and brought the Peloponnesian fleet to an engagement off
Notium, in which the Athenians were defeated with the loss of 15
ships, and Antiochus himself was slain.  Among the Athenian
armament itself great dissatisfaction was growing up against
Alcibiades.  Though at the head of a splendid force, he had in
three months time accomplished literally nothing.  His
debaucheries and dissolute conduct on shore were charged against
him, as well as his selecting for confidential posts not the men
best fitted for them, but those who, like Antiochus were the boon
companions and the chosen associates of his revels.  These
accusations forwarded to Athens, and fomented by his secret
enemies, soon produced an entire revulsion in the public feeling
towards Alcibiades.  The Athenians voted that he should be
dismissed from his command, and they appointed in his place ten
new generals, with Conon at their head.

The year of Lysander's command expired about the same time as the
appointment of Conon to the Athenian fleet.  Through the
intrigues of Lysander, his successor Callicratidas was received
with dissatisfaction both by the Lacedaemonian seamen and by
Cyrus.  Loud complaints were raised of the impolicy of an annual
change of commanders.  Lysander threw all sorts of difficulties
into the way of his successor, to whom he handed over an empty
chest, having first repaid to Cyrus all the money in his
possession under the pretence that it was a private loan.  The
straightforward conduct of Callicratidas, however, who summoned
the Lacedaemonian commanders, and after a dignified remonstrance,
plainly put the question whether he should return home or remain,
silenced all opposition.  But he was sorely embarrassed for
funds.  Cyrus treated him with haughtiness; and when he waited on
that prince at Sardis, he was dismissed not only without money,
but even without an audience.  Callicratidas, however, had too
much energy to be daunted by such obstacles.  Sailing with his
fleet from Ephesus to Miletus, he laid before the assembly of
that city, in a spirited address, all the ill they had suffered
at the hands of the Persians, and exhorted them to bestir
themselves and dispense with the Persian alliance.  He succeeded
in persuading the Milesians to make him a large grant of money,
whilst the leading men even came forward with private
subscriptions.  By means of this assistance he was enabled to add
50 triremes to the 90 delivered to him by Lysander; and the
Chians further provided him with ten days' pay for the seamen.

The fleet of Callicratidas was now double that of Conon.  The
latter was compelled to run before the superior force of
Callicratidas.  Both fleets entered the harbour of Mytilene at
the same time, where a battle ensued in which Conon lost 30
ships, but he saved the remaining 40 by hauling them ashore under
the walls of the town.  Callicratidas then blockaded Mytilene
both by sea and land; but Conon contrived to despatch a trireme
to Athens with the news of his desperate position.

As soon as the Athenians received intelligence of the blockade of
Mytilene; vast efforts were made for its relief; and we learn
with surprise that in thirty days a fleet of 110 triremes was
equipped and despatched from Piraeus.  The armament assembled at
Samos, where it was reinforced by scattered Athenian ships, and
by contingents from the allies, to the extent of 40 vessels.  The
whole fleet of 150 sail then proceeded to the small islands of
Arginusae, near the coast of Asia, and facing Malea, the south-
eastern cape of Lesbos.  Callicratidas, who went out to meet
them, took up his station at the latter point, leaving a squadron
of 50 ships to maintain the blockade of Mytilene.  He had thus
only 120 ships to oppose to the 150 of the Athenians, and his
pilot advised him to retire before the superior force of the
enemy.  But Callicratidas replied that he would not disgrace
himself by flight, and that if he should perish Sparta would not
feel his loss.  The battle was long and obstinate.  All order was
speedily lost, and the ships fought singly with one another, In
one of these contests, Callicratidas, who stood on the prow of
his vessel ready to board the enemy, was thrown overboard by the
shock of the vessels as they met, and perished.  At length
victory began to declare for the Athenians.  The Lacedaemonians,
after losing 77 vessels, retreated with the remainder to Chios
and Phocaea.  The loss of the Athenians was 25 vessels.

The battle of Arginusae led to a deplorable event, which has for
ever sullied the pages of Athenian history.  At least a dozen
Athenian vessels were left floating about in a disabled condition
after the battle; but, owing to a violent storm that ensued, no
attempt was made to rescue the survivors, or to collect the
bodies of the dead for burial.  Eight of the ten generals were
summoned home to answer for this conduct; Conon, by his situation
at Mytilene, was of course exculpated, and Archestratus had died.
Six of the generals obeyed the summons, and were denounced in the
Assembly by Theramenes, formerly one of the Four Hundred, for
neglect of duty.  The generals replied that they had commissioned
Theramenes himself and Thrasybulus, each of whom commanded a
trireme in the engagement, to undertake the duty, and had
assigned 48 ships to them for that purpose.  This, however, was
denied by Theramenes.  There are discrepancies in the evidence,
and we have no materials for deciding positively which statement
was true; but probability inclines to the side of the generals.
Public feeling, however, ran very strongly against them, and was
increased by an incident which occurred during their trial.
After a day's debate the question was adjourned; and in the
interval the festival of the APATURIA was celebrated, in which,
according to annual custom, the citizens met together according
to their families and phratries.  Those who had perished at
Arginusae were naturally missed on such an occasion; and the
usually cheerful character of the festival was deformed and
rendered melancholy by the relatives of the deceased appearing in
black clothes and with shaven heads.  The passions of the people
were violently roused.  At the next meeting of the Assembly,
Callixenus, a senator, proposed that the people should at once
proceed to pass its verdict on the generals, though they had been
only partially heard in their defence; and, moreover, that they
should all be included in one sentence, though it was contrary to
a rule of Attic law, known as the psephisma of Canonus, to indict
citizens otherwise than individually.  The Prytanes, or senators
of the presiding tribe, at first refused to put the question to
the Assembly in this illegal way; but their opposition was at
length overawed by clamour and violence.  There was, however, one
honourable exception.  The philosopher Socrates, who was one of
the Prytanes, refused to withdraw his protest.  But his
opposition was disregarded, and the proposal of Callixenus was
carried, The generals were condemned, delivered over to the
Eleven for execution, and compelled to drink the fatal hemlock.
Among them was Pericles, the son of the celebrated statesman.

In the following year (B.C. 405), through the influence of Cyrus
and the other allies of Sparta, Lysander again obtained the
command of the Peloponnesian fleet, though nominally under Aracus
as admiral; since it was contrary to Spartan usage that the same
man should be twice NAVARCHUS.  His return to power was marked by
more vigorous measures.  He sailed to the Hellespont, and laid
siege to Lampsacus.  The Athenian fleet arrived too late to save
the town, but they proceeded up the strait and took post at
AEgospotami, or the "Goat's River;" a place which had nothing to
recommend it, except its vicinity to Lampsacus, from which it was
separated by a channel somewhat less than two miles broad.  It
was a mere desolate beach, without houses or inhabitants, so that
all the supplies had to be fetched from Sestos, or from the
surrounding country, and the seamen were compelled to leave their
ships in order to obtain their meals.  Under these circumstances
the Athenians were very desirous of bringing Lysander to an
engagement.  But the Spartan commander, who was in a strong
position, and abundantly furnished with provisions, was in no
hurry to run any risks.  In vain did the Athenians sail over
several days in succession to offer him battle; they always found
his ships ready manned, and drawn up in too strong a position to
warrant an attack; nor could they by all their manoeuvres succeed
in enticing him out to combat.  This cowardice, as they deemed
it, on the part of the Lacedaemonians, begat a corresponding
negligence on theirs; discipline was neglected and the men
allowed to straggle almost at will.  It was in vain that
Alcibiades, who since his dismissal resided in a fortress in that
neighbourhood, remonstrated with the Athenian generals on the
exposed nature of the station they had chosen, and advised them
to proceed to Sestos.  His counsels were received with taunts and
insults.  At length, on the fifth day, Lysander, having watched
an opportunity when the Athenian seamen had gone on shore and
were dispersed over the country, rowed swiftly across the strait
with all his ships.  He found the Athenian fleet, with the
exception of 10 or 12 vessels, totally unprepared, and he
captured nearly the whole of it, without having occasion to
strike a single blow.  Of the 180 ships which composed the fleet,
only the trireme of Conon himself, the Paralus, and 8 or 10 other
vessels succeeded in escaping.  Conon was afraid to return to
Athens after so signal a disaster, and took refuge with Evagoras,
prince of Salamis in Cyprus.

By this momentous victory (September, B.C. 405) the Peloponnesian
war was virtually brought to an end.  Lysander, secure of an easy
triumph, was in no haste to gather it by force.  The command of
the Euxine enabled him to control the supplies of Athens; and
sooner or later, a few weeks of famine must decide her fall.  He
now sailed forth to take possession of the Athenian towns, which
fell one after another into his power as soon as he appeared
before them.  About November he arrived at AEgina, with an
overwhelming fleet of 150 triremes, and proceeded to devastate
Salamis and blockade Piraeus.  At the same time the whole
Peloponnesian army was marched into Attica and encamped in the
precincts of the Academus, at the very gates of Athens.  Famine
soon began to be felt within the walls, and at the end of three
months it became so dreadful, that the Athenians saw themselves
compelled to submit to the terms of the conqueror.  These terms
were:  That the long walls and the fortifications of Piraeus
should be demolished; that the Athenians should give up all their
foreign possessions, and confine themselves to their own
territory; that they should surrender all their ships of war;
that they should readmit all their exiles; and that they should
become allies of Sparta.

It was about the middle or end of March, B.C. 404, that Lysander
sailed into Piraeus, and took formal possession of Athens; the
war, in singular conformity with the prophecies current at the
beginning of it, having lasted for a period of thrice nine, or 27
years.  The insolence of the victors added another blow to the
feelings of the conquered.  The work of destruction, at which
Lysander presided, was converted into a sort of festival.  Female
flute-players and wreathed dancers inaugurated the demolition of
the strong and proud bulwarks of Athens; and as the massive walls
fell piece by piece exclamations arose from the ranks of the
Peloponnesians that freedom had at length begun to dawn upon



The fall of Athens brought back a host of exiles, all of them the
enemies of her democratical constitution.  Of these these most
distinguished was Critias, a man of wealth and family, the uncle
of Plato, and once the intimate friend of Socrates, distinguished
both for his literary and political talents, but of unmeasured
ambition and unscrupulous conscience.  Critias and his companions
soon found a party with which they could co-operate; and
supported by Lysander they proposed in the assembly that a
committee of thirty should be named to draw up laws for the
future government of the city, and to undertake its temporary
administration.  Among the most prominent of the thirty names
were those of Critias and Theramenes.  The proposal was of course
carried.  Lysander himself addressed the Assembly, and
contemptuously told them that they had better take thought for
their personal safety, which now lay at his mercy, than for their
political constitution.  The committee thus appointed soon
obtained the title of the Thirty Tyrants, the name by which they
have become known in all subsequent time.  After naming an
entirely new Senate, and appointing fresh magistrates, they
proceeded to exterminate their most obnoxious opponents.  But
Critias, and the more violent party among them, still called for
more blood; and with the view of obtaining it, procured a Spartan
garrison, under the harmost Callibius, to be installed in the
Acropolis.  Besides this force, they had an organized band of
assassins at their disposal.  Blood now flowed on all sides.
Many of the leading men of Athens fell, others took to flight.

Thus the reign of terror was completely established.  In the
bosom of the Thirty, however, there was a party, headed by
Theramenes, who disapproved of these proceedings.  But his
moderation cost him his life.  One day as he entered the Senate-
house, Critias rose and denounced him as a public enemy, and
ordered him to be carried off to instant death.  Upon hearing
these words Theramenes sprang for refuge to the altar in the
Senate-house; but he was dragged away by Satyrus, the cruel and
unscrupulous head of the "Eleven," a body of officers who carried
into execution the penal sentence of the law.  Being conveyed to
prison, he was compelled to drink the fatal hemlock.  The
constancy of his end might have adorned a better life after
swallowing the draught, he jerked on the floor a drop which
remained in the cup, according to the custom of the game called
COTTABOS, exclaiming, "This to the health of the GENTLE Critias!"

Alcibiades had been included by the Thirty in the list of exiles;
but the fate which now overtook him seems to have sprung from the
fears of the Lacedaemonians, or perhaps from the personal hatred
of Agis.  After the battle of AEgospotami, Pharnabazus permitted
the Athenian exile to live in Phrygia, and assigned him a revenue
for his maintenance.  But a despatch came out from Sparta, to
Lysander, directing that Alcibiades should be put to death.
Lysander communicated the order to Pharnabazus, who arranged for
carrying it into execution.  The house of Alcibiades was
surrounded with a band of assassins, and set on fire.  He rushed
out with drawn sword upon his assailants, who shrank from the
attack, but who slew him from a distance with their javelins and
arrows.  Timandra, a female with whom he lived, performed towards
his body the last offices of duty and affection.  Thus perished
miserably, in the vigour of his age, one of the most remarkable,
but not one of the greatest, characters in Grecian history.  With
qualities which, properly applied, might have rendered him the
greatest benefactor of Athens, he contrived to attain the
infamous distinction of being that citizen who had inflicted upon
her the most signal amount of damage.

Meantime an altered state of feeling was springing up in Greece.
Athens had ceased to be an object of fear or jealousy, and those
feelings began now to be directed towards Sparta.  Lysander had
risen to a height of unparalleled power.  He was in a manner
idolized.  Poets showered their praises on him, and even altars
were raised in his honour by the Asiatic Greeks.  In the name of
Sparta he exercised almost uncontrolled authority in the cities
he had reduced, including Athens itself.  But it was soon
discovered that, instead of the freedom promised by the Spartans,
only another empire had been established, whilst Lysander was
even meditating to extort from the subject cities a yearly
tribute of one thousand talents.  And all these oppressions were
rendered still more intolerable by the overweening pride and
harshness of Lysander's demeanour.

Even in Sparta itself the conduct of Lysander was beginning to
inspire disgust and jealousy.  Pausanias, son of Plistoanax, who
was now king with Agis, as well as the new Ephors appointed in
September, B.C. 404, disapproved of his proceedings.  The Thebans
and Corinthians themselves were beginning to sympathise with
Athens, and to regard the Thirty as mere instruments for
supporting the Spartan dominion; whilst Sparta in her turn looked
upon them as the tools of Lysander's ambition.  Many of the
Athenian exiles had found refuge in Boeotia:  and one of them
Thrasybulus, with the aid of Ismenias and other Theban citizens,
starting from Thebes at the head of a small band of exiles,
seized the fortress of Phyle in the passes of Mount Parnes and on
the direct road to Athens.  The Thirty marched out to attack
Thrasybulus, at the head of the Lacedaemonian garrison and a
strong Athenian force.  But their attack was repulsed with
considerable loss.

Shortly afterwards Thrasybulus marched from Phyle to Piraeus
which was now an open town, and seized upon it without
opposition.  When the whole force of the Thirty, including the
Lacedaemonians, marched on the following day to attack him, he
retired to the hill of Munychia, the citadel of Piraeus, the only
approach to which was by a steep ascent.  Here he drew up his
hoplites in files of ten deep, posting behind them his slingers
and dartmen.  He exhorted his men to stand patiently till the
enemy came within reach of the missiles.  At the first discharge
the assailing column seemed to waver; and Thrasybulus, taking
advantage of their confusion, charged down the hill, and
completely routed them, killing seventy, among whom was Critias
himself.  The loss of their leader had thrown the majority into
the hands of the party formerly led by Theramenes, who resolved
to depose the Thirty and constitute a new oligarchy of Ten.  Some
of the Thirty were re-elected into this body; but the more
violent colleagues of Critias were deposed and retired for safety
to Eleusis.  The new government of the Ten sent to Sparta to
solicit further aid; and a similar application was made at the
same time from the section of the Thirty at Eleusis.  Their
request was complied with; and Lysander once more entered Athens
at the head of a Lacedaemonian force.  Fortunately, however, the
jealousy of the Lacedaemonians towards Lysander led them at this
critical juncture to supersede him in the command.  King
Pausanias was appointed to conduct an army into Attica, and when
he encamped in the Academus he was joined by Lysander and his
forces.  It was known at Athens that the views of Pausanias were
unfavourable to the proceedings of Lysander; and the presence of
the Spartan king elicited a vehement reaction against the
oligarchy, which fear had hitherto suppressed.  All parties sent
envoys to Sparta.  The Ephors and the Lacedaemonian Assembly
referred the question to a committee of fifteen, of whom
Pausanias was one.  The decision of this board was:  That the
exiles in Piraeus should be readmitted to Athens, and that there
should be an amnesty for all that had passed, except as regarded
the Thirty and the Ten.

When these terms were settled and sworn to, the Peloponnesians
quitted Attica; and Thrasybulus and the exiles, marching in
solemn procession from Piraeus to Athens, ascended to the
Acropolis and offered up a solemn sacrifice and thanksgiving.  An
assembly of the people was then held, and after Thrasybulus had
addressed an animated reproof to the oligarchical party, the
democracy was unanimously restored.  This important counter-
revolution took place in the spring of 403 B.C.  The archons, the
senate of 500, the public assembly, and the dicasteries seem to
have been reconstituted in the same form as before the capture of
the city.

Thus was terminated, after a sway of eight months, the despotism
of the Thirty.  The year which contained their rule was not named
after the archon, but was termed "the year of anarchy."  The
first archon drawn after their fall was Euclides, who gave his
name to a year ever afterwards memorable among the Athenians.

For the next few years the only memorable event in the history of
Athens is the death of Socrates.  This celebrated philosopher was
born in the year 468 B.C., in the immediate neighbourhood of
Athens.  His father, Sophroniscus, was a sculptor, and Socrates
was brought up to, and for some time practised, the same
profession.  He was married to Xanthippe, by whom he had three
sons; but her bad temper has rendered her name proverbial for a
conjugal scold.  His physical constitution was healthy, robust,
and wonderfully enduring.  Indifferent alike to heat and cold the
same scanty and homely clothing sufficed him both in summer and
winter; and even in the campaign of Potidaea, amidst the snows of
a Thracian winter, he went barefooted.  But though thus gifted
with strength of body and of mind, he was far from being endowed
with personal beauty.  His thick lips, flat nose, and prominent
eyes, gave him the appearance of a Silenus, or satyr.  He served
with credit as an hoplite at Potidaea (B.C. 432), Delium (B.C.
424), and Amphipolis (B.C. 422); but it was not till late in
life, in the year 406 B.C., that he filled any political office.
He was one of the Prytanes when, after the battle of Arginusae,
Callixenus submitted his proposition respecting the six generals
to the public Assembly, and his refusal on that occasion to put
an unconstitutional question to the vote has been already
recorded.  He had a strong persuasion that he was intrusted with
a divine mission, and he believed himself to be attended by a
daemon, or genius, whose admonitions he frequently heard, not,
however, in the way of excitement, but of restraint.  He never
WROTE anything, but he made oral instruction the great business
of his life.  Early in the morning he frequented the public
walks, the gymnasia, and the schools; whence he adjourned to the
market-place at its most crowded hours, and thus spent the whole
day in conversing with young and old, rich and poor,--with all in
short who felt any desire for his instructions.

That a reformer and destroyer, like Socrates, of ancient
prejudices and fallacies which passed current under the name of
wisdom should have raised up a host of enemies is only what might
be expected; but in his case this feeling was increased by the
manner in which he fulfilled his mission.  The oracle of Delphi,
in response to a question put by his friend Chaerephon, had
affirmed that no man was wiser than Socrates.  No one was more
perplexed at this declaration than Socrates himself, since he was
conscious of possessing no wisdom at all.  However, he determined
to test the accuracy of the priestess, for, though he had little
wisdom, others might have still less.  He therefore selected an
eminent politician who enjoyed a high reputation for wisdom, and
soon elicited by his scrutinising method of cross-examination,
that this statesman's reputed wisdom was no wisdom at all.  But
of this he could not convince the subject of his examination;
whence Socrates concluded that he was wiser than this politician,
inasmuch as he was conscious of his own ignorance, and therefore
exempt from the error of believing himself wise when in reality
he was not so.  The same experiment was tried with the same
result on various classes of men; on poets, mechanics, and
especially on the rhetors and sophists, the chief of all the
pretenders to wisdom.

The first indication of the unpopularity which he had incurred is
the attack made upon him by Aristophanes in the 'Clouds' in the
year 423 B.C.  That attack, however, seems to have evaporated
with the laugh, and for many years Socrates continued his
teaching without molestation.  It was not till B.C. 399 that the
indictment was preferred against him which cost him his life.  In
that year, Meletus, a leather-seller, seconded by Anytus, a poet,
and Lycon, a rhetor, accused him of impiety in not worshipping
the gods of the city, and in introducing new deities, and also of
being a corrupter of youth.  With respect to the latter charge,
his former intimacy with Alcibiades and Critias may have, weighed
against him.  Socrates made no preparations for his defence, and
seems, indeed, not to have desired an acquittal.  But although he
addressed the dicasts in a bold uncompromising tone, he was
condemned only by a small majority of five or six in a court
composed of between five and six hundred dicasts.  After the
verdict was pronounced, he was entitled, according to the
practice of the Athenian courts, to make some counter-proposition
in place of the penalty of death, which the accusers had
demanded, and if he had done so with any show of submission it is
probable that the sentence would have been mitigated.  But his
tone after the verdict was higher than before.  Instead of a
fine, he asserted that he ought to be maintained in the Prytaneum
at the public expense, as a public benefactor.  This seems to
have enraged the dicasts and he was condemned to death.

It happened that the vessel which proceeded to Delos on the
annual deputation to the festival had sailed the day before his
condemnation; and during its absence it was unlawful to put any
one to death.  Socrates was thus kept in prison during thirty
days, till the return of the vessel.  He spent the interval in
philosophical conversations with his friends.  Crito, one of
these, arranged a scheme for his escape by bribing the gaoler;
but Socrates, as might be expected from the tone of his defence,
resolutely refused to save his life by a breach of the law.  His
last discourse, on the day of his death, turned on the
immortality of the soul.  With a firm and cheerful countenance he
drank the cup of hemlock amidst his sorrowing and weeping
friends.  His last words were addressed to Crito:--"Crito, we owe
a cock to AEsculapius; discharge the debt, and by no means omit

Thus perished the greatest and most original of the Grecian
philosophers, whose uninspired wisdom made the nearest approach
to the divine morality of the Gospel.  His teaching forms an
epoch in the history of philosophy.  From his school sprang
Plato, the founder of the Academic philosophy; Euclides, the
founder of the Megaric school; Aristippus, the founder of the
Cyrenaic school; and many other philosophers of eminence.


THOUSAND, B.C. 401-400.

The assistance which Cyrus had rendered to the Lacedaemonians in
the Peloponnesian war led to a remarkable episode in Grecian
history.  This was the celebrated expedition of Cyrus against his
brother Artaxerxes, in which the superiority of Grecian to
Asiatic soldiers was so strikingly shown.

The death of Darius Nothus, king of Persia, took place B.C. 404,
shortly before the battle of AEgospotami.  Cyrus, who was present
at his father's death, was charged by Tissaphernes with plotting
against his elder brother Artaxerxes, who succeeded to the
throne.  The accusation was believed by Artaxerxes, who seized
his brother, and would have put him to death, but for the
intercession of their mother, Parysatis, who persuaded him not
only to spare Cyrus but to confirm him in his former government.
Cyrus returned to Sardis burning with revenge, and fully resolved
to make an effort to dethrone his brother.

From his intercourse with the Greeks Cyrus had become aware of
their superiority to the Asiatics, and of their usefulness in
such an enterprise as he now contemplated.  The peace which
followed the capture of Athens seemed favourable to his projects.
Many Greeks, bred up in the practice of war during the long
struggle between that city and Sparta, were now deprived of their
employment, whilst many more had been driven into exile by the
establishment of the Spartan oligarchies in the various conquered
cities.  Under the pretence of a private war with the satrap,
Tissaphernes, Cyrus enlisted large numbers of them in his
service.  The Greek in whom he placed most confidence was
Clearchus, a Lacedaemonian, and formerly harmost of Byzantium,
who had been condemned to death by the Spartan authorities for
disobedience to their orders.

It was not, however, till the beginning of the year B.C. 401 that
the enterprise of Cyrus was ripe for execution.  The Greek levies
were then withdrawn from the various towns in which they were
distributed, and concentrated in Sardis, to the number of about
8000; and in March or April of this year Cyrus marched from
Sardis with them, and with an army of 100,000 Asiatics.  The
object of the expedition was proclaimed to be an attack upon the
mountain-freebooters of Pisidia; its real destination was a
secret to every one except Cyrus himself and Clearchus.  Among
the Greek soldiers was Xenophon, an Athenian knight, to whom we
owe a narrative of the expedition.  He went as a volunteer, at
the invitation of his friend Proxenus, a Boeotian, and one of the
generals of Cyrus.

The march of Cyrus was directed through Lydia and Phrygia.  after
passing Colossae he arrived at Colaenae, where he was joined by
more Greek troops, the number of whom now amounted to 11,000
hoplites and 2000 peltasts.  The line of march, which had been
hitherto straight upon Pisidia, was now directed northwards.
Cyrus passed in succession the Phrygian towns of Peltae, Ceramon
Agora, the Plain of Cayster, Thymbrium, Tyriaeum, and Iconium,
the last city in Phrygia.  Thence he proceeded through Lycaonia
to Dana, and across Mount Taurus into Cilicia.

On arriving at Tarsus, a city on the coast of Cilicia, the Greeks
plainly saw that they had been deceived, and that the expedition
was designed against the Persian king.  Seized with alarm at the
prospect of so long a march, they sent a deputation to Cyrus to
ask him what his real intentions were.  Cyrus replied that his
design was to march against his enemy, Abrocomas, satrap of
Syria, who was encamped on the banks of the Euphrates.  The
Greeks, though they still suspected a delusion, contented
themselves with this answer in the face of their present
difficulties, especially as Cyrus promised to raise their pay
from one Daric to one Daric and a half a month.  The whole army
then marched forwards to Issus, the last town in Cilicia, seated
on the gulf of the same name.  Here they met the fleet, which
brought them a reinforcement of 1100 Greek soldiers, thus raising
the Grecian force to about 14,000 men.

Abrocomas, who commanded for the Great King in Syria and
Phoenicia, alarmed at the rapid progress of Cyrus, fled before
him with all his army, reported as 300,000 strong; abandoning the
impregnable pass situated one day's march from Issus, and known
as the Gates of Cilicia and Syria.  Marching in safety through
this pass, the army next reached Myriandrus, a seaport of
Phoenicia.  From this place Cyrus struck off into the interior,
over Mount Amanus.  Twelve days' march brought him to Thapsacus
on the Euphrates, where for the first time he formally notified
to the army that he was marching to Babylon against his brother
Artaxerxes, The water happened to be very low, scarcely reaching
to the breast; and Abrocomas made no attempt to dispute the
passage.  The army now entered upon the desert, where the Greeks
were struck with the novel sights which met their view, and at
once amused and exhausted themselves in the chase of the wild ass
and the antelope, or in the vain pursuit of the scudding ostrich.
After several days of toilsome march the army at length reached
Pylae, the entrance into the cultivated plains of Babylonia,
where they halted a few days to refresh themselves.

Soon after leaving that place symptoms became perceptible of a
vast hostile force moving in their front.  The exaggerated
reports of deserters stated it at 1,200,000 men; its real
strength was about 900,000.  In a characteristic address Cyrus
exhorted the Greeks to take no heed of the multitude of their
enemies; they would find in them, he affirmed nothing but numbers
and noise, and, if they could bring themselves to despise these,
they would soon find of what worthless stuff the natives were
composed.  The army then marched cautiously forwards, in order of
battle, along the left bank of the Euphrates.  They soon came
upon a huge trench, 30 feet broad and 18 deep, which Artaxerxes
had caused to be dug across the plain for a length of about 42
English miles, reaching from the Euphrates to the wall of Media.
Between it and the river was left only a narrow passage about 20
feet broad; yet Cyrus and his army found with surprise that this
pass was left entirely undefended.  This circumstance inspired
them with a contempt of the enemy, and induced them to proceed in
careless array; but on the next day but one after passing the
trench, on arriving at a place called Cunaxa, they were surprised
with the intelligence that Artaxerxes was approaching with all
his forces.  Cyrus immediately drew up his army in order of
battle.  The Greeks were posted on the right, whilst Cyrus
himself, surrounded by a picked body-guard of 600 Persian
cuirassiers, took up his station in the centre.  When the enemy
were about half a mile distant, the Greeks engaged them with the
usual war-shout.  The Persians did not await their onset, but
turned and fled.  Tissaphernes and his cavalry alone offered any
resistance; the remainder of the Persian left was routed without
a blow.  As Cyrus was contemplating the easy victory of the
Greeks, his followers surrounded him, and already saluted him
with the title of king.  But the centre and right of Artaxerxes
still remained unbroken; and that monarch, unaware of the defeat
of his left wing, ordered the right to wheel and encompass the
army of Cyrus.  No sooner did Cyrus perceive this movement than
with his body-guard he impetuously charged the enemy's centre,
where Artaxerxes himself stood, surrounded with 6000 horse.  The
latter were routed and dispersed, and were followed so eagerly by
the guards of Cyrus, that he was left almost alone with the
select few called his "Table Companions."  In this situation he
caught sight of his brother Artaxerxes, whose person was revealed
by the flight of his troops, when, maddened at once by rage and
ambition, he shouted out, "I see the man!"  and rushed at him
with his handful of companions.  Hurling his javelin at his
brother, he wounded him in the breast, but was himself speedily
overborne by superior numbers and slain on the spot.

Meanwhile Clearchus had pursued the flying enemy upwards of three
miles; but hearing that the king's troops were victorious on the
left and centre, he retraced his steps, again routing the
Persians who endeavoured to intercept him.  When the Greeks
regained their camp they found that it had been completely
plundered, and were consequently obliged to go supperless to
rest.  It was not till the following day that they learned the
death of Cyrus; tidings which converted their triumph into sorrow
and dismay.  They were desirous that Ariaeus who now commanded
the army of Cyrus, should lay claim to the Persian crown, and
offered to support his pretensions; but Ariaeus answered that the
Persian grandees would not tolerate such a claim; that he
intended immediately to retreat; and that, if the Greeks wished
to accompany him, they must join him during the following night.
This was accordingly done; when oaths of reciprocal fidelity were
interchanged between the Grecian generals and Ariaeus, and
sanctified by a solemn sacrifice.

On the following day a message arrived from the Persian King,
with a proposal to treat for peace on equal terms.  Clearchus
affected to treat the offer with great indifference, and made it
an opportunity for procuring provisions.  "Tell your king," said
he to the envoys, "that we must first fight; for we have had no
breakfast, nor will any man presume to talk to the Greeks about a
truce without first providing for them a breakfast."  This was
agreed to, and guides were sent to conduct the Greeks to some
villages where they might obtain food.  Here they received a
visit from Tissaphernes, who pretended much friendship towards
them, and said that ha had come from the Great King to inquire
the reason of their expedition.  Clearchus replied--what was
indeed true of the greater part of the army--that they had not
come hither with any design to attack the king, but had been
enticed forwards by Cyrus under false pretences; that their only
desire at present was to return home; but that, if any obstacle
was offered, they were prepared to repel hostilities.  In a day
or two Tissaphernes returned and with some parade stated that he
had with great difficulty obtained permission to SAVE the Greek
army; that he was ready to conduct them in person into Greece;
and to supply them with provisions, for which, however, they were
to pay.  An agreement was accordingly entered into to this
effect; and after many days delay they commenced the homeward
march.  After marching three days they passed through the wall of
Media, which was 100 feet high and 20 feet broad.  Two days more
brought them to the Tigris, which they crossed on the following
morning by a bridge of boats.  They then marched northward,
arriving in four days at the river Physcus and a large city
called Opis.  Six days' further march through a deserted part of
Media brought them to some villages belonging to queen Parysatis,
which, out of enmity to her as the patron of Cyrus, Tissaphernes
abandoned to be plundered by the Greeks.  From thence they
proceeded in five days to the river Zabatus, or Greater Zab,
having previously crossed the Lesser Zab, which Xenophon neglects
to mention.  In the first of these five days they saw on the
opposite side of the Tigris a large city called Caenae, the
inhabitants of which brought over provisions to them.  At the
Greater Zab they halted three days.  Mistrust, and even slight
hostilities, had been already manifested between the Greeks and
Persians, but they now became so serious that Clearchus demanded
an interview with Tissaphernes.  The latter protested the
greatest fidelity and friendship towards the Greeks, and promised
to deliver to the Greek generals, on the following day, the
calumniators who had set the two armies at variance.  But when
Clearchus, with four other generals, accompanied by some lochages
or captains, and 200 soldiers, entered the Persian camp,
according to appointment; the captains and soldiers were
immediately cut down; whilst the five generals were seized, put
into irons, and sent to the Persian court.  After a short
imprisonment, four of them were beheaded; the fifth, Menon, who
pretended that he had betrayed his colleagues into the hands of
Tissaphernes, was at first spared; but after a year's detention
was put to death with tortures.

Apprehension and dismay reigned among the Greeks.  Their
situation was, indeed, appalling.  They were considerably more
than a thousand miles from home, in a hostile and unknown
country, hemmed in on all sides by impassable rivers and
mountains, without generals, without guides, without provisions.
Xenophon was the first to rouse the captains to the necessity for
taking immediate precautions.  Though young, he possessed as an
Athenian citizen some claim to distinction; and his animated
address showed him fitted for command.  He was saluted general on
the spot; and in a subsequent assembly was, with four others,
formally elected to that office.

The Greeks, having first destroyed their superfluous baggage,
crossed the Greater Zab, and pursued their march on the other
bank.  They passed by the ruined cities of Larissa and Mespila on
the Tigris, in the neighbourhood of the ancient Nineveh.  The
march from Mespila to the mountainous country of the Carduchi
occupied several days in which the Greeks suffered much from the
attacks of the enemy.

Their future route was now a matter of serious perplexity.  On
their left lay the Tigris, so deep that they could not fathom it
with their spears; while in their front rose the steep and lofty
mountains of the Carduchi, which came so near the river as hardly
to leave a passage for its waters.  As all other roads seemed
barred, they formed the resolution of striking into these
mountains, on the farther side of which lay Armenia, where both
the Tigris and the Euphrates might be forded near their sources.
After a difficult and dangerous march of seven days, during which
their sufferings were far greater than any they had experienced
from the Persians the army at length emerged into Armenia.  It
was now the month of December, and Armenia was cold and exposed,
being a table-land raised high above the level of the sea.
Whilst halting near some well-supplied villages, the Greeks were
overtaken by two deep falls of snow, which almost buried them in
their open bivouacs.  Hence a five days' march brought them to
the eastern branch of the Euphrates.  Crossing the river, they
proceeded on the other side of it over plains covered with a deep
snow, and in the face of a biting north wind.  Here many of the
slaves and beasts of burthen, and even a few of the soldiers,
fell victims to the cold.  Some had their feet frost-bitten; some
were blinded by the snow; whilst others, exhausted with cold and
hunger, sunk down and died.  On the eighth day they proceeded on
their way, ascending the banks of the Phasis, not the celebrated
river of that name, but probably the one usually called Araxes.

From thence they fought their way through the country of the
Taochi and Chalybes.  They next reached the country of the
Scythini, in whose territory they found abundance in a large and
populous city called Gymnias.  The chief of this place having
engaged to conduct them within sight of the Euxine, they
proceeded for five days under his guidance; when, after ascending
a mountain, the sea suddenly burst on the view of the vanguard.
The men proclaimed their joy by loud shouts of "The sea!  the
sea!"  The rest of the army hurried to the summit, and gave vent
to their joy and exultation in tears and mutual embraces.  A few
days' march through the country of the Macrones and Colchians at
length brought them to the objects for which they had so often
pined, and which many at one time had never hoped to see again
--a Grecian city and the sea.  By the inhabitants of Trapezus or
Trebizond, on the Euxine, where they had now arrived, they were
hospitably received, and, being cantoned in some Colchian
villages near the town, refreshed themselves after the hardships
they had undergone by a repose of thirty days.

The most difficult part of the return of the Ten Thousand was now
accomplished, and it is unnecessary to trace the remainder of
their route.  After many adventures they succeeded in reaching
Byzantium, and they subsequently engaged to serve the
Lacedaemonians in a war which Sparta had just declared against
the satraps Tissaphernes and Pharnabazus.

In the spring of B.C. 399, Thimbron, the Lacedaemonian commander,
arrived at Pergamus, and the remainder of the Ten Thousand Greeks
became incorporated with his army.  Xenophon now returned to
Athens, where he must have arrived shortly after the execution of
his master Socrates.  Disgusted probably by that event, he
rejoined his old comrades in Asia, and subsequently returned to
Greece along with Agesilaus.



After the fall of Athens, Sparta stood without a rival in Greece.
In the various cities which had belonged to the Athenian empire
Lysander established an oligarchical Council of Ten, called a
DECARCHY or Decemvirate, subject to the control of a Spartan
HARMOST or governor.  The Decarchies, however, remained only a
short time in power, since the Spartan government regarded them
with jealousy as the partisans of Lysander; but harmosts
continued to be placed in every state subject to their empire.
The government of the harmosts was corrupt and oppressive; no
justice could be obtained against them by an appeal to the
Spartan authorities at home; and the Grecian cities soon had
cause to regret the milder and more equitable sway of Athens.

On the death of Agis in B.C. 398, his half-brother Agesilaus was
appointed King, to the exclusion of Leotychides, the son of Agis.
This was mainly effected by the powerful influence of Lysander,
who erroneously considered Agesilaus to be of a yielding and
manageable disposition and hoped by a skilful use of those
qualities to extend his own influence, and under the name of
another to be in reality king himself.

Agesilaus was now forty years of age, and esteemed a model of
those virtues more peculiarly deemed Spartan.  He was obedient to
the constituted authorities, emulous to excel, courageous,
energetic, capable of bearing all sorts of hardship and fatigue,
simple and frugal in his mode of life.  To these severer
qualities he added the popular attractions of an agreeable
countenance and pleasing address.  His personal defects at first
stood in the way of his promotion.  He was not only low in
stature, but also lame of one leg; and there was an ancient
oracle which warned the Spartans to beware of "a lame reign."
The ingenuity of Lysander, assisted probably by the popular
qualities of Agesilaus, contrived to overcome this objection by
interpreting a lame reign to mean not any bodily defect in the
king, but the reign of one who was not a genuine descendant of
Hercules.  Once possessed of power, Agesilaus supplied any defect
in his title by the prudence and policy of his conduct; and, by
the marked deference which he paid both to the Ephors and the
senators, he succeeded in gaining for himself more real power
than had been enjoyed by any of his predecessors.

The affairs of Asia Minor soon began to draw the attention of
Agesilaus to that quarter.  The assistance lent to Cyrus by the
Spartans was no secret at the Persian court; and Tissaphernes,
who had been rewarded for his fidelity with the satrapy of Cyrus
in addition to his own, no sooner returned to his government than
he attacked the Ionian cities, then under the protection of
Sparta.  A considerable Lacedaemonian force under Thimbron was
despatched to their assistance, and which, as related in the
preceding chapter, was joined by the remnant of the Greeks who
had served under Cyrus.  Thimbron, however, proved so inefficient
a commander, that he was superseded at the end of 399 or
beginning of 398 B.C., and Dercyllidas appointed in his place.
But though at first successful against Pharnabazus in AEolis,
Dercyllidas was subsequently surprised in Caria in such an
unfavourable position that he would have suffered severely but
for the timidity of Tissaphernes, who was afraid to venture upon
an action.  Under these circumstances an armistice was agreed to
for the purpose of treating for a peace (397 B.C.).

Pharnabazus availed himself of this armistice to make active
preparations for a renewal of the war.  He obtained large
reinforcements of Persian troops, and began to organize a fleet
in Phoenicia and Cilicia.  This was intrusted to the Athenian
admiral Conon, of whom we now first hear again after a lapse of
seven years since his defeat at AEgospotami.  After that
disastrous battle Conon fled with nine triremes to Cyprus, where
he was now living under the protection of Evagoras, prince of

It was the news of these extensive preparations that induced
Agesilaus, on the suggestion of Lysander, to volunteer his
services against the Persians.  He proposed to take with him only
30 full Spartan citizens, or peers, to act as a sort of council,
together with 2000 Neodamodes, or enfranchised Helots, and 6000
hoplites of the allies.  Lysander intended to be the leader of
the 30 Spartans, and expected through them to be the virtual
commander of the expedition of which Agesilaus was nominally the

Since the time of Agamemnon no Grecian king had led an army into
Asia; and Agesilaus studiously availed himself of the prestige of
that precedent in order to attract recruits to his standard.  The
Spartan kings claimed to inherit the sceptre of Agamemnon; and to
render the parallel more complete, Agesilaus proceeded with a
division of his fleet to Aulis, intending there to imitate the
memorable sacrifice of the Homeric hero.  But as he had neglected
to ask the permission of the Thebans, and conducted the sacrifice
and solemnities by means of his own prophets and ministers, and
in a manner at variance with the usual rites of the temple, the
Thebans were offended, and expelled him by armed force:--an
insult which he never forgave.

It was in 396 B.C. that Agesilaus arrived at Ephesus and took the
command in Asia.  He demanded of the Persians the complete
independence of the Greek cities in Asia; and in order that there
might be time to communicate with the Persian court, the
armistice was renewed for three months.  During this interval of
repose, Lysander, by his arrogance and pretensions, offended both
Agesilaus and the Thirty Spartans.  Agesilaus, determined to
uphold his dignity, subjected Lysander to so many humiliations
that he was at last fain to request his dismissal from Ephesus,
and was accordingly sent to the Hellespont, where he did good
service to the Spartan interests.

Meanwhile Tissaphernes, having received large reinforcements,
sent a message to Agesilaus before the armistice had expired,
ordering him to quit Asia.  Agesilaus immediately made
preparations as if he would attack Tissaphernes in Caria; but
having thus put the enemy on a false scent, he suddenly turned
northwards into Phrygia, the satrapy of Pharnabazus, and marched
without opposition to the neighbourhood of Dascylium, the
residence of the satrap himself.  Here, however, he was repulsed
by the Persian cavalry.  He now proceeded into winter quarters at
Ephesus, where be employed himself in organizing a body of
cavalry to compete with the Persians.  During the winter the army
was brought into excellent condition; and Agesilaus gave out
early in the spring of 395 B.C. that he should march direct upon
Sardis.  Tissaphernes suspecting another feint, now dispersed his
cavalry in the plain of the Maeander.  But this time Agesilaus
marched as he had announced, and in three days arrived unopposed
on the banks of the Pactolus, before the Persian cavalry could be
recalled.  When they at last came up, the newly raised Grecian
horse, assisted by the peltasts, and some of the younger and more
active hoplites, soon succeeded in putting them to flight.  Many
of the Persians were drowned in the Pactolus, and their camp,
containing much booty and several camels, was taken.

Agesilaus now pushed his ravages up to the very gates of Sardis,
the residence of Tissaphernes.  But the career of that timid and
treacherous satrap was drawing to a close.  The queen-mother,
Parysatis, who had succeeded in regaining her influence over
Artaxerxes, caused an order to be sent down from Susa for his
execution; in pursuance of which he was seized in a bath at
Colossae, and beheaded.  Tithraustes, who had been intrusted with
the execution of this order, succeeded Tissaphernes in the
satrapy, and immediately reopened negotiations with Agesilaus.
An armistice of six months was concluded; and meanwhile
Tithraustes, by a subsidy of 30 talents, induced Agesilaus to
move out of his satrapy into that of Pharnabazus.

During this march into Phrygia Agesilaus received a new
commission from home, appointing him the head of the naval as
well as of the land force--two commands never before united in a
single Spartan.  He named his brother-in-law, Pisander, commander
of the fleet.  But in the following year (B.C. 394), whilst he
was preparing an expedition on a grand scale into the interior of
Asia Minor, he was suddenly recalled home to avert the dangers
which threatened his native country.

The jealousy and ill-will with which the newly acquired empire of
the Spartans was regarded by the other Grecian states had not
escaped the notice of the Persians; and when Tithraustes
succeeded to the satrapy of Tissaphernes he resolved to avail
himself of this feeling by exciting a war against Sparta in the
heart of Greece itself.  With this view he despatched one
Timocrates, a Rhodian, to the leading Grecian cities which
appeared hostile to Sparta, carrying with him a sum of 50 talents
to be distributed among the chief men in each for the purpose of
bringing them over to the views of Persia.  Timocrates was
successful in Thebes, Corinth, and Argos but he appears not to
have visited Athens.

Hostilities were at first confined to Sparta and Thebes.  A
quarrel having arisen between the Opuntian Locrians and the
Phocians respecting a strip of border land, the former people
appealed to the Thebans, who invaded Phocis.  The Phocians on
their side invoked the aid of the Lacedaemonians, who, elated
with the prosperous state of their affairs in Asia, and moreover
desirous of avenging the affronts they had received from the
Thebans, readily listened to the appeal.  Lysander, who took an
active part in promoting the war, was directed to attack the town
of Haliartus; and it was arranged that King Pausanias should join
him on a fixed day under the walls of that town, with the main
body of the Lacedaemonians and their Peloponnesian allies.

Nothing could more strikingly denote the altered state of feeling
in Greece than the request for assistance which the Thebans, thus
menaced, made to their ancient enemies and rivals the Athenians.
Nor were the Athenians backward in responding to the appeal.
Lysander arrived at Haliartus before Pausanias.  Here, in a sally
made by the citizens, opportunely supported by the unexpected
arrival of a body of Thebans, the army of Lysander was routed,
and himself slain.  His troops disbanded and dispersed themselves
in the night time.  Thus, when Pausanias at last came up, he
found no army to unite with; and as an imposing Athenian force
had arrived, he now, with the advice of his council took the
humiliating step--always deemed a confession of inferiority--of
requesting a truce in order to bury the dead who had fallen in
the preceding battle.  Even this, however, the Thebans would not
grant except on the condition that the Lacedaemonians should
immediately quit their territory.  With these terms Pausanias was
forced to comply; and after duly interring the bodies of Lysander
and his fallen comrades, the Lacedaemonians dejectedly pursued
their homeward march.  Pausanias, afraid to face the public
indignation of the Spartans took refuge in the temple of Athena
Alea at Tegea; and being condemned to death in his absence, only
escaped that fate by remaining in the sanctuary.  He was
succeeded by his son Agesipolis.

The enemies of Sparta took fresh courage from this disaster to
her arms.  Athens, Corinth, and Argos now formed with Thebes a
solemn alliance against her.  The league was soon joined by the
Euboeans, the Acarnanians, and other Grecian states.  In the
spring of 394 B.C. the allies assembled at Corinth, and the war,
which had been hitherto regarded as merely Boeotian, was now
called the CORINTHIAN, by which name it is known in history.
This threatening aspect of affairs determined the Ephors to
recall Agesilaus, as already related.

The allies were soon in a condition to take the field with a
force of 24,000 hoplites, of whom one-fourth were Athenians,
together with a considerable body of light troops and cavalry.
The Lacedaemonians had also made the most active preparations.
In the neighbourhood of Corinth a battle was fought, in which the
Lacedaemonians gained the victory, though their allied troops
were put to the rout.  This battle, called the battle of Corinth,
was fought in July 394 B.C.

Agesilaus, who had relinquished with a heavy heart his projected
expedition into Asia, was now on his homeward march.  By the
promise of rewards he had persuaded the bravest and most
efficient soldiers in his army to accompany him, amongst whom
were many of the Ten Thousand, with Xenophon at their head.  The
route of Agesilaus was much the same as the one formerly
traversed by Xerxes, and the camels which accompanied the army
gave it somewhat of an oriental aspect.  At Amphipolis he
received the news of the victory at Corinth; but his heart was so
full of schemes against Persia, that the feeling which it
awakened in his bosom was rather one of regret that so many
Greeks had fallen, whose united efforts might have emancipated
Asia Minor, than of joy at the success of his countrymen.  Having
forced his way through a desultory opposition offered by the
Thessalian cavalry, he crossed Mount Othrys, and marched
unopposed the rest of the way through the straits of Thermopylae
to the frontiers of Phocis and Boeotia.  Here the evil tidings
reached him of the defeat and death of his brother-in-law,
Pisander, in a great sea-fight off Cnidus in Caria (August 394
B.C.) Conon, with the assistance of Pharnabazus, had succeeded in
raising a powerful fleet, partly Phoenician and partly Grecian,
with which he either destroyed or captured more than half of the
Lacedaemonian fleet.  Agesilaus, fearing the impression which
such sad news might produce upon his men, gave out that the
Lacedaemonian fleet had gained a victory; and, having offered
sacrifice as if for a victory, he ordered an advance.

Agesilaus soon came up with the confederate army, which had
prepared to oppose him in the plain of Coronea.  The Thebans
succeeded in driving in the Orchomenians, who formed the left
wing of the army of Agesilaus, and penetrated as far as the
baggage in the rear.  But on the remainder of the line Agesilaus
was victorious, and the Thebans now saw themselves cut off from
their companions, who had retreated and taken up a position on
Mount Helicon.  Facing about and forming in deep and compact
order, the Thebans sought to rejoin the main body, but they were
opposed by Agesilaus and his troops.  The shock of the
conflicting masses which ensued was one of the most terrible
recorded in the annals of Grecian warfare.  The shields of the
foremost ranks were shattered, and their spears broken, so that
daggers became the only available arm.  Agesilaus, who was in the
front ranks, unequal by his size and strength to sustain so
furious an onset, was flung down, trodden on, and covered with
wounds; but the devoted courage of the 50 Spartans forming his
body-guard rescued him from death.  The Thebans finally forced
their may through, but not without severe loss.  The victory of
Agesilaus was not very decisive; but the Thebans tacitly
acknowledged their defeat by soliciting the customary truce for
the burial of their dead.

Agesilaus, on his arrival at Sparta, was received with the most
lively demonstrations of gratitude and esteem, and became hence-
forward the sole director of Spartan policy.

Thus in less than two months the Lacedaemonians had fought two
battles on land, and one at sea; namely, those of Corinth,
Coronea, and Cnidus.  But, though they had been victorious in the
land engagements, they were so little decisive as to lead to no
important result; whilst their defeat at Cnidus produced the most
disastrous consequences.  It was followed by the loss of nearly
all their maritime empire, even faster than they had acquired it
after the battle of AEgospotami.  For as Conon and Pharnabazus
sailed with their victorious fleet from island to island, and
from port to port, their approach was everywhere the signal for
the flight or expulsion of the Spartan harmosts.

In the spring of the following year (B.C. 393) Conon and
Pharnabazus sailed to the isthmus of Corinth, then occupied as a
central post by the allies.  The appearance of a Persian fleet in
the Saronic gulf was a strange sight to Grecian eyes, and one
which might have served as a severe comment on the effect of
their suicidal wars.  Conon dexterously availed himself of the
hatred of Pharnabazus towards Sparta to procure a boon for his
native city.  As the satrap was on the point of proceeding
homewards, Conon obtained leave to employ the seamen in
rebuilding the fortifications of Piraeus and the long walls of
Athens.  Pharnabazus also granted a large sum for the same
purpose; and Conon had thus the glory of appearing, like a second
Themistocles, the deliverer and restorer of his country.  Before
the end of autumn the walls were rebuilt.  Having thus, as it
were, founded Athens a second time, Conon sailed to the islands
to lay again the foundations of an Athenian maritime empire.

During the remainder of this and the whole of the following year
(B.C. 392) the war was carried on in the Corinthian territory.

One of the most important events at this time was the destruction
of a whole Lacedaemonian MORA, or battalion, by the light-armed
mercenaries of the Athenian Iphicrates.  For the preceding two
years Iphicrates had commanded a body of mercenaries, consisting
of peltasts, [So called from the pelta, or kind of shield which
they carried.]  who had been first organised by Conon after
rebuilding the walls of Athens.  For this force Iphicrates
introduced those improved arms and tactics which form an epoch in
the Grecian art of war.  His object was to combine as far as
possible the peculiar advantages of the hoplites and light-armed
troops.  He substituted a linen corslet for the coat of mail worn
by the hoplites, and lessened the shield, while he rendered the
light javelin and short sword of the peltasts more effective by
lengthening them both one-half These troops soon proved very
effective.  After gaining several victories he ventured to make a
sally from Corinth, and attacked a Lacedaemonian mora in flank
and rear.  So many fell under the darts and arrows of the
peltasts that the Lacedaemonian captain called a halt, and
ordered the youngest and most active of his hoplites to rush
forward and drive off the assailants.  But their heavy arms
rendered them quite unequal to such a mode of fighting; nor did
the Lacedaemonian cavalry, which now came up, but which acted
with very little vigour and courage, produce any better effect.
At length the Lacedaemonians succeeded in reaching an eminence,
where they endeavoured to make a stand; but at this moment
Callias arrived with some Athenian hoplites from Corinth,
whereupon the already disheartened Lacedaemonians broke and fled
in confusion, pursued by the peltasts, who committed such havoc,
chasing and killing some of them even in the sea, that but very
few of the whole body succeeded in effecting their escape.

The maritime war was prosecuted with vigour.  Thrasybulus, and
after his death Iphicrates, were successful upon the coast of
Asia Minor, and made the Athenians again masters of the
Hellespont.  Under these circumstances the Lacedaemonians
resolved to spare no efforts to regain the good will of the
Persians.  Antalcidas, the Lacedaemonian commander on the Asiatic
coast, entered into negotiations with Tiribazus, who had
succeeded Tithraustes in the satrapy of Ionia, in order to bring
about a general peace under the mediation of Persia.  Conducted
by Tiribazus, Antalcidas repaired to the Persian court, and
prevailed an the Persian monarch both to adopt the peace, and to
declare war against those who should reject it.  Antalcidas and
Tiribazus returned to the coasts of Asia Minor, not only armed
with these powers, but provided with an ample force to carry them
into execution.  In addition to the entire fleet of Persia,
Dionysius of Syracuse had placed 20 triremes at the service of
the Lacedaemonians; and Antalcidas now sailed with a large fleet
to the Hellespont, where Iphicrates and the Athenians were still
predominant.  The overwhelming force of Antalcidas, the largest
that had been seen in the Hellespont since the battle of
AEgospotami, rendered all resistance hopeless.  The supplies of
corn from the Euxine no longer found their way to Athens:  and
the Athenians, depressed at once both by what they felt and by
what they anticipated, began to long for peace.  As without the
assistance of Athens it seemed hopeless for the other allies to
struggle against Sparta, all Greece was inclined to listen to an

Under these circumstances deputies from the Grecian states were
summoned to meet Tiribazus; who, after exhibiting to them the
royal seal of Persia, read to them the following terms of a
peace:  "King Artaxerxes thinks it just that the cities in Asia
and the islands of Clazomenae and Cyprus should belong to him.
He also thinks it just to leave all the other Grecian cities,
both small and great, independent--except Lemnos, Imbros, and
Scyros, which are to belong to Athens, as of old.  should any
parties refuse to accept this peace, I will make war upon them,
along with those who are of the same mind, both by land and sea,
with ships and with money."  All the Grecian states accepted
these terms.

This disgraceful peace, called the PEACE OF ANTALCIDAS, was
concluded in the year B.C. 387.  By it Greece seemed prostrated
at the feet of the barbarians; for its very terms, engraven on
stone and set up in the sanctuaries of Greece, recognised the
Persian king as the arbiter of her destinies.  Although Athens
cannot be entirely exonerated from the blame of this transaction,
the chief guilt rests upon Sparta, whose designs were far deeper
and more hypocritical than they appeared.  Under the specious
pretext of securing the independence of the Grecian cities, her
only object was to break up the confederacies under Athens and
Thebes, and, with the assistance of Persia, to pave the way for
her own absolute dominion in Greece.

No sooner was the peace of Antalcidas concluded than Sparta,
directed by Agesilaus, the ever-active enemy of Thebes, exerted
all her power to weaken that city.  She began by proclaiming the
independence of the various Boeotian cities, and by organizing in
each a local oligarchy, adverse to Thebes and favourable to
herself.  Lacedaemonian garrisons were placed in Orchomenus and
Thespiae, and Plataea was restored in order to annoy and weaken
Thebes.  Shortly afterwards the Lacedaemonians obtained
possession of Thebes itself by an act of shameful treachery.
They had declared war against Olynthus, a town situated at the
head of the Toronaic gulf, in the peninsula of the Macedonian
Chalcidice, the head of a powerful confederation which included
several of the adjacent Grecian cities.  The Thebans had entered
into an alliance with Olynthus, and had forbidden any of their
citizens to join the Lacedaemonian army destined to act against
it; but they were not strong enough to prevent its marching
through their territory.  Phoebidas, who was conducting a
Lacedaemonian force against Olynthus, halted on his way through
Boeotia not far from Thebes; where he was visited by Leontiades,
one of the polemarchs of the city, and two or three other leaders
of the Lacedaemonian party in Thebes.  It happened that the
festival of the Thesmophoria was on the point of being
celebrated, during which the Cadmea, or Theban Acropolis, was
given up for the exclusive use of the women.  The opportunity
seemed favourable for a surprise; and Leontiades and Phoebidas
concerted a plot to seize it.  Whilst the festival was
celebrating, Phoebidas pretended to resume his march, but only
made a circuit round the city walls; whilst Leontiades, stealing
out of the senate, mounted his horse, and, joining the
Lacedaemonian troops, conducted them towards the Cadmea.  It was
a sultry summer's afternoon, so that the very streets were
deserted; and Phoebidas, without encountering any opposition,
seized the citadel and all the women in it, to serve as hostages
for the quiet submission of the Thebans (B.C. 382).  This
treacherous act during a period of profound peace awakened the
liveliest indignation throughout Greece.  Sparta herself could
not venture to justify it openly, and Phoebidas was made the
scape-goat of her affected displeasure.  As a sort of atonement
to the violated feeling of Greece, he was censured, fined, and
dismissed.  But that this was a mere farce is evident from the
fact, of his subsequent restoration to command; and, however
indignant the Lacedaemonians affected to appear at the act of
Phoebidas, they took care to reap the fruits of it by retaining
their garrison in the Cadmea.

The once haughty Thebes was now enrolled a member of the
Lacedaemonian alliance, and furnished her contingent--the
grateful offering of the new Theban government--for the war which
Sparta was prosecuting with redoubled vigour against Olynthus.
This city was taken by the Lacedaemonians in B.C. 379; the
Olynthian confederacy was dissolved; the Grecian cities belonging
to it were compelled to join the Lacedaemonian alliance; whilst
the maritime towns of Macedonia were reduced under the dominion
of Amyntas, the king of Macedon.

The power of Sparta on land had now attained its greatest height.
Her unpopularity in Greece was commensurate with the extent of
her harshly administered dominion.  She was leagued on all slides
with the enemies of Grecian freedom--with the Persians, with
Amyntas of Macedon, and with Dionysius of Syracuse.  But she had
now reached the turning-point of her fortunes, and her successes,
which had been earned without scruple, were soon to be followed
by misfortunes and disgrace.  The first blow came from Thebes,
where she had perpetrated her most signal injustice.

That city had been for three years in the hands of Leontiades and
the Spartan party.  During this time great discontent had grown
up among the resident citizens; and there was also the party of
exasperated exiles, who had taken refuge at Athens.  Among these
exiles was Pelopidas, a young man of birth and fortune, who had
already distinguished himself by his disinterested patriotism and
ardent character.  He now took the lead in the plans formed the
the liberation of his country, and was the heart and soul of the
enterprise.  His warm and generous heart was irresistibly
attracted by everything great and noble; and hence he was led to
form a close and intimate friendship with Epaminondas, who was
several years older than himself and of a still loftier
character.  Their friendship is said to have originated in a
campaign in which they served together, when, Pelopidas having
fallen in battle apparently dead, Epaminondas protected his body
at the imminent risk of his own life.  Pelopidas afterwards
endeavoured to persuade Epaminondas to share his riches with him;
and when he did not succeed, he resolved to live on the same
frugal fare as his great friend.  A secret correspondence was
opened with his friends at Thebes, the chief of whom were
Phyllidas, secretary to the polemarchs, and Charon.  The dominant
faction, besides the advantage of the actual possession of power,
was supported by a garrison of 1500 Lacedaemonians.  The
enterprise, therefore, was one of considerable difficulty and
danger.  In the execution of it Phyllidas took a leading part.
It was arranged that he should give a supper to Archias and
Philippus, the two polemarchs, and after they had partaken freely
of wine the conspirators were to be introduced, disguised as
women, and to complete their work by the assassination of the
polemarchs.  On the day before the banquet, Pelopidas, with six
other exiles, arrived at Thebes from Athens, and, straggling
through the gates towards dusk in the disguise of rustics and
huntsmen, arrived safely at the house of Charon, where they
remained concealed till the appointed hour.  While the polemarchs
were at table a messenger arrived from Athens with a letter for
Archias, in which the whole plot was accurately detailed.  The
messenger, in accordance with his instructions, informed Archias
that the letter related to matters of serious importance.  But
the polemarch, completely engrossed by the pleasures of the
table, thrust the letter under the pillow of his couch,
exclaiming, "Serious matters to-morrow."

The hour of their fate was now ripe.  The conspirators, disguised
with veils, and in the ample folds of female attire, were ushered
into the room.  For men in the state of the revelers the
deception was complete; but when they attempted to lift the veils
from the women, their passion was rewarded by the mortal thrust
of a dagger.  After thus slaying the two polemarchs, the
conspirators went to the house of Leontiades whom they also

The news of the revolution soon spread abroad.  Proclamations
were issued announcing that Thebes was free, and calling upon all
citizens who valued their liberty to muster in the market-place.
As soon as day dawned, and the citizens became aware that they
were summoned to vindicate their liberty, their joy and
enthusiasm were unbounded.  For the first time since the seizure
of their citadel they met in public assembly; the conspirators,
being introduced, were crowned by the priests with wreaths, and
thanked in the name of their country's gods; whilst the assembly,
with grateful acclamation, unanimously nominated Pelopidas,
Charon, and Mellon as the first restored Boeotarchs.

Meanwhile the remainder of the Theban exiles, accompanied by a
body of Athenian volunteers, assembled on the frontiers of
Boeotia; and, at the first news of the success of the conspiracy,
hastened to Thebes to complete the revolution.  The Thebans,
under their new Boeotarchs, were already mounting to the assault
of the Cadmea, when the Lacedaemonians capitulated, and were
allowed to march out with the honours of war.  The Athenians
formed an alliance with the Thebans, and declared war against

From this time must be dated the era of a new political
combination in Greece.  Athens strained every nerve to organize a
fresh confederacy.  Thebes did not scruple to enrol herself as
one of its earliest members.  The basis on which the confederacy
was formed closely resembled that of Delos.  The cities composing
it were to be independent, and to send deputies to a congress at
Athens, for the purpose of raising a common fund for the support
of a naval force.  Care was taken to banish all recollections
connected with the former unpopularity of the Athenian empire.
The name of the tribute was no longer PHOROS, but SYNTAXIS, or
"contribution."  The confederacy, which ultimately numbered 70
cities, was chiefly organised through the exertions of Chabrias,
and of Timotheus the son of Conon.  Nor were the Thebans less
zealous, amongst whom the Spartan government had left a lively
feeling of antipathy.  The military force was put in the best
training, and the famous "Sacred Band" was now for the first time
instituted.  This band was a regiment of 300 hoplites.  It was
supported at the public expense and kept constantly under arms.
It was composed of young and chosen citizens of the best
families, and organized in such a manner that each man had at his
side a dear and intimate friend.  Its special duty was the
defence of the Cadmea.

The Thebans had always been excellent soldiers; but their good
fortune now gave them the greatest general that Greece had
hitherto seen.  Epaminondas, who now appears conspicuously in
public life, deserves the reputation not merely of a Theban but
of a Grecian hero.  Sprung from a poor but ancient family,
Epaminondas possessed all the best qualities of his nation
without that heaviness, either of body or of mind, which
characterized and deteriorated the Theban people.  By the study
of philosophy and by other intellectual pursuits his mind was
enlarged beyond the sphere of vulgar superstition, and
emancipated from that timorous interpretation of nature which
caused even some of the leading men of those days to behold a
portent in the most ordinary phenomenon.  A still rarer
accomplishment for a Theban was that of eloquence, which he
possessed in no ordinary degree.  These intellectual qualities
were matched with moral virtues worthy to consort with them.
Though eloquent, he was discreet; though poor, he was neither
avaricious nor corrupt; though naturally firm and courageous, he
was averse to cruelty, violence, and bloodshed; though a patriot,
he was a stranger to personal ambition, and scorned the little
arts by which popularity is too often courted.  Pelopidas, as we
have already said, was his bosom friend.  It was natural
therefore, that, when Pelopidas was named Boeotarch, Epaminondas
should be prominently employed in organizing the means of war;
but it was not till some years later that his military genius
shone forth in its full lustre.

The Spartans were resolved to avenge the repulse they had
received; and in the summer of B.C. 378 Agesilaus marched with a
large army into Boeotia.  He was unable, however, to effect any
thing decisive, and subsequent invasions were attended with the
like result.  The Athenians created a diversion in their favour
by a maritime war, and thus for two years Boeotia was free from
Spartan invasion, Thebes employed this time in extending her
dominion over the neighbouring cities.  One of her most important
successes during this period was the victory gained by Pelopidas
over a Lacedaemonian force near Tegyra, a village dependent upon
Orchomenus (B.C. 375).  Pelopidas had with him only the Sacred
Band and a small body of cavalry when he fell in with the
Lacedaemonians, who were nearly twice as numerous.  He did not,
however, shrink from the conflict on this account; and when one
of his men, running up to him, exclaimed, "We are fallen into the
midst of the enemy," he replied, "Why so, more than they into the
midst of us?"  In the battle which ensued the two Spartan
commanders fell at the first charge, and their men were put to
the rout.  So signal a victory inspired the Thebans with new
confidence and vigour, as it showed that Sparta was not
invincible even in a pitched battle, and with the advantage of
numbers on her side.  By the year 374 B.C. the Thebans had
succeeded in expelling the Lacedaemonians from Boeotia, and
revived the Boeotian confederacy.  They also destroyed the
restored city of Plataea, and obliged its inhabitants once more
to seek refuge at Athens.

The successes of the Thebans revived the jealousy and distrust of
Athens.  Prompted by these feelings, the Athenians opened
negotiations for a peace with Sparta; a resolution which was also
adopted by the majority of the allies.

A congress was accordingly opened in Sparta in the spring of 371
B.C.  The Athenians were represented by Callias and two other
envoys; the Thebans by Epaminondas, then one of the polemarchs.
The terms of a peace were agreed upon, by which the independence
of the various Grecian cities was to be recognised; and the
Spartan harmosts and garrisons everywhere dismissed.  Sparta
ratified the treaty for herself and her allies; but Athens took
the oaths only for herself, and was followed separately by her
allies.  As Epaminondas refused to sign except in the name of the
Boeotian confederation, Agesilaus directed the name of the
Thebans to be struck out of the treaty, and proclaimed them
excluded from it.

The peace concluded between Sparta, Athens, and their respective
allies, was called the PEACE OF CALLIAS.  The result with regard
to Thebes and Sparta will appear in the following chapter.



In pursuance of the treaty, the Lacedaemonians withdrew their
harmosts and garrisons, whilst the Athenians recalled their fleet
from the Ionian sea.  Only one feeling prevailed at Sparta--a
desire to crush Thebes.  This city was regarded as doomed to
destruction; and it was not for a moment imagined that, single-
handed, she would he able to resist the might of Sparta.  At the
time when the peace was concluded Cleombrotus happened to be in
Phocis at the head of a Lacedaemonian army; and he now received
orders to invade Boeotia without delay.  The Thebans on their
side, were equally determined on resistance.  The two armies met
on the memorable plain of Leuctra, near Thespiae.  The forces on
each side are not accurately known, but it seems probable that
the Thebans were outnumbered by the Lacedaemonians.  The military
genius of Epaminondas, however, compensated any inferiority of
numbers by novelty of tactics.  Up to this time Grecian battles
had been uniformly conducted by a general attack in line.
Epaminondas now first adopted the manoeuvre, used with such
success by Napoleon in modern times, of concentrating heavy
masses on a given point of the enemy's array.  Having formed his
left wing into a dense column of 50 deep, so that its depth was
greater than its front, he directed it against the Lacedaemonian
right, containing the best troops in their army, drawn up 12
deep, and led by Cleombrotus in person.  The shock was terrible.
Cleombrotus himself was mortally wounded in the onset, and with
difficulty carried off by his comrades.  Numbers of his officers,
as well as of his men, were slain, and the whole wing was broken
and driven back to their camp.  The loss of the Thebans was small
compared with that of the Lacedaemonians.  Out of 700 Spartans in
the army of the latter, 400 had fallen; and their king also had
been slain, an event which had not occurred since the fatal day
of Thermopylae.

The victory of Leuctra was gained within three weeks after the
exclusion of the Thebans from the peace of Callias.  The effect
of it throughout Greece was electrical.  It was everywhere felt
that a new military power had arisen--that the prestige of the
old Spartan discipline and tactics had departed.  Yet at Sparta
itself though the reverse was the greatest that her arms had ever
sustained, the news of it was received with an assumption of
indifference characteristic of the people.  The Ephors forbade
the chorus of men, who were celebrating in the theatre the
festival of the Gymnopaedia, to be interrupted.  They contented
themselves with directing the names of the slain to be
communicated to their relatives, and with issuing an order
forbidding the women to wail and mourn.  Those whose friends had
fallen appeared abroad on the morrow with joyful countenances,
whilst the relatives of the survivors seemed overwhelmed with
grief and shame.

Immediately after the battle the Thebans had sent to Jason of
Pherae in Thessaly to solicit his aid against the Lacedaemonians.
This despot was one of the most remarkable men of the period.  He
was Tagus, or Generalissimo, of all Thessaly; and Macedonia was
partially dependent on him.  He was a man of boundless ambition,
and meditated nothing less than extending his dominion over the
whole of Greece, for which his central situation seemed to offer
many facilities.  Upon receiving the invitation of the Thebans,
Jason immediately resolved to join them.  When he arrived the
Thebans were anxious that he should unite with them in an attack
upon the Lacedaemonian camp; but Jason dissuaded them from the
enterprise, advising them not to drive the Lacedaemonians to
despair, and offering his mediation.  He accordingly succeeded in
effecting a truce, by which the Lacedaemonians were allowed to
depart from Boeotia unmolested.

According to Spartan custom, the survivors of a defeat were
looked upon as degraded men, and subjected to the penalties of
civil infamy.  No allowance was made for circumstances.  But
those who had fled at Leuctra were three hundred in number; all
attempt to enforce against them the usual penalties might prove
not only inconvenient, but even dangerous; and on the proposal of
Agesilaus, they were, for this occasion only, suspended.  The
loss of material power which Sparta sustained by the defeat was
great.  The ascendency she had hitherto enjoyed in parts north of
the Corinthian gulf fell from her at once, and was divided
between Jason of Pherae and the Thebans.  Jason was shortly
afterwards assassinated.  His death was felt as a relief by
Greece, and especially by Thebes.  He was succeeded by his two
brothers, Polyphron and Polydorus; but they possessed neither his
ability nor his power.

The Athenians stood aloof from the contending parties.  They had
not received the news of the battle of Leuctra with any pleasure,
for they now dreaded Thebes more than Sparta.  But instead of
helping the latter, they endeavoured to prevent either from
obtaining the supremacy in Greece, and for this purpose called
upon the other states to form a new alliance upon the terms of
the peace of Antalcidas.  Most of the Peloponnesian states joined
this new league.  Thus even the Peloponnesian cities became
independent of Sparta.  But this was not all.  Never did any
state fall with greater rapidity.  She not only lost the dominion
over states which she had exercised for centuries; but two new
political powers sprang up in the peninsula, which threatened her
own independence.

In the following year (B.C. 370) Epaminondas marched into
Laconia, and threatened Sparta itself.  The city, which was
wholly unfortified, was filled with confusion and alarm.  The
women, who had never yet seen the face of an enemy, gave vent to
their fears in wailing and lamentation.  Agesilaus, however, was
undismayed, and saved the state by his vigilance and energy.  He
repulsed the cavalry of Epaminondas as they advanced towards
Sparta; and so vigorous were his measures of defence, that the
Theban general abandoned all further attempt upon the city, and
proceeded southwards as far as Helos and Gythium on the coast,
the latter the port and arsenal of Sparta after laying waste with
fire and sword the valley of the Eurotas, he retraced his steps
to the frontiers of Arcadia.

Epaminondas now proceeded to carry out the two objects for which
his march had been undertaken; namely, the consolidation of the
Arcadian confederation, and the establishment of the Messenians
as an independent community.  In the prosecution of the former of
these designs the mutual jealousy of the various Arcadian cities
rendered it necessary that a new one should be founded, which
should be regarded as the capital of the confederation.
Consequently, a new city was built on the banks of the Helisson,
called Megalopolis, and peopled by the inhabitants of forty
distinct Arcadian townships.  Here a synod of deputies from the
towns composing the confederation, called "The Ten Thousand" was
to meet periodically for the despatch of business.  Epaminondas
next proceeded to re-establish the Messenian state.  The
Messenians had formerly lived under a dynasty of their own kings;
but for the last three centuries their land had been in the
possession of the Lacedaemonians, and they had been fugitives
upon the face of the earth.  The restoration of these exiles,
dispersed in various Hellenic colonies, to their former rights,
would plant a bitterly hostile neighbour on the very borders of
Laconia.  Epaminondas accordingly opened communications with
them, and numbers of them flocked to his standard during his
march into Peloponnesus.  He now founded the town of Messene.
Its citadel was placed on the summit of Mount Ithome, which had
three centuries before been so bravely defended by the Messenians
against the Spartans.  The strength of its fortifications was
long afterwards a subject of admiration.  The territory attached
to the new city extended southwards to the Messenian gulf, and
northwards to the borders of Arcadia, comprising some of the most
fertile land in Peloponnesus.

So low had Sparta sunk, that she was fain to send envoys to beg
the assistance of the Athenians.  This request was acceded to;
and shortly afterwards an alliance was formed between the two
states, in which Sparta waived all her claims to superiority and
headship.  During the next two years the Thebans continued
steadily to increase their power and influence in Greece, though
no great battle was fought.  In B.C. 368 Pelopidas conducted a
Theban force into Thessaly and Macedonia.  In Thessaly he
compelled Alexander, who, by the murder of his two brothers, had
become despot of Pherae and Tagus of Thessaly, to relinquish his
designs against the independence of Larissa and other Thessalian
cities, and to solicit peace.  In Macedonia he formed an alliance
with the regent Ptolemy:  and amongst the hostages given for the
observance of this treaty was the youthful Philip, son of
Amyntas, afterwards the celebrated king of Macedon, who remained
for some years at Thebes.

In the following year Pelopidas and Ismenias proceeded on an
embassy to Persia.  Ever since the peace of Antalcidas the Great
King had become the recognised mediator between the states of
Greece; and his fiat seemed indispensable to stamp the claims of
that city which pretended to the headship.  The recent
achievements of Thebes might entitle her to aspire to that
position:  and at all events the alterations which she had
produced in the internal state, of Greece, by the establishment
of Megalopolis and Messene, seemed to require for their stability
the sanction of a Persian rescript.  This was obtained without
difficulty, as Thebes was now the strongest state in Greece; and
it was evidently easier to exercise Persian ascendency there by
her means, than through a weaker power.  The Persian rescript
pronounced the independence of Messene and Amphipolis; the
Athenians were directed to lay up their ships of war in ordinary;
and Thebes was declared the head of Greece.

It was, in all probability, during a mission undertaken by
Pelopidas and Ismonias, for the purpose of procuring the
acknowledgment of the rescript in Thessaly and the northern parts
of Greece, that they were seized and imprisoned by Alexander of
Pherae.  The Thebans immediately despatched an army of 8000
hoplites and 600 cavalry to recover or avenge their favourite
citizen.  Unfortunately, however, they were no longer commanded
by Epaminondas.  Their present commanders were utterly
incompetent.  They were beaten and forced to retreat, and the
army was in such danger from the active pursuit of the
Thessalians and Athenians, that its destruction seemed
inevitable.  Luckily, however, Epaminondas was serving as a
hoplite in the ranks.  By the unanimous voice of the troops he
was now called to the command, and succeeded in conducting the
army safely back to Thebes.  Here the unsuccessful Boeotarchs
were disgraced; Epaminondas was restored to the command, and
placed at the head of a second Theban army destined to attempt
the release of Pelopidas.  Directed by his superior skill the
enterprise proved successful, and Pelopidas (B.C. 367) returned
in safety to Thebes.

In B.C. 364 Pelopidas again marched into Thessaly against
Alexander of Pherae.  Strong complaints of the tyranny of that
despot arrived at Thebes, and Pelopidas, who probably also burned
to avenge his private wrongs, prevailed upon the Thebans to send
him into Thessaly to punish the tyrant.  The battle was fought on
the hills of Cynoscephalae; the troops of Alexander were routed:
and Pelopidas, observing his hated enemy endeavouring to rally
them, was seized with such a transport of rage that, regardless
of his duties as a general, he rushed impetuously forwards and
challenged him to single combat.  Alexander shrunk back within
the ranks of his guards, followed impetuously by Pelopidas, who
was soon slain, fighting with desperate bravery.  Although the
army of Alexander was defeated with severe loss, the news of the
death of Pelopidas deprived the Thebans and their Thessalian
allies of all the joy which they would otherwise have felt at
their victory.

Meantime a war had been carried on between Elis and Arcadia which
had led to disunion among the Arcadians themselves.  The
Mantineans supported the Eleans, who were also assisted by the
Spartans; whilst the rest of the Arcadians, and especially the
Tegeans, favoured Thebes.  In B.C. 362 Epaminondas marched into
Peloponnesus to support the Theban party in Arcadia, The Spartans
sent a powerful force to the assistance of the Mantineans in
whose territory the hostile armies met.  In the battle which
ensued Epaminondas formed his Boeotian troops into a column of
extraordinary depth, with which he bore down all before them.
The Mantineans and Lacedaemonians turned and fled, and the rest
followed their example.  The day was won; but Epaminondas, who
fought in the foremost ranks, fell pierced with a mortal wound.
His fall occasioned such consternation among his troops, that,
although the enemy were in full flight, they did not know how to
use their advantage, and remained rooted to the spot.
Epaminondas was carried off the field with the spear-head still
fixed in his breast.  Having satisfied himself that his shield
was safe, and that the victory was gained, he inquired for
Iolaidas and Daiphantus, whom he intended to succeed him in the
command.  Being informed that both were slain:  "Then" he
observed "you must make peace."  After this he ordered the spear-
head to be withdrawn; when the gush of blood which followed soon
terminated his life.  Thus died this truly great man; and never
was there one whose title to that epithet has been less disputed.
Antiquity is unanimous in his praise, and some of the first men
of Greece subsequently took him for their model.  With him the
commanding influence of Thebes began and ended.  His last advice
was adopted, and peace was concluded probably before the Theban
army quitted Peloponnesus.  Its basis was a recognition of the
STATUS QUO--to leave everything as it was, to acknowledge the
Arcadian constitution and the independence of Messene.  Sparta
alone refused to join it on account of the last article, but she
was not supported by her allies.

Agesilaus had lived to see the empire of Sparta extinguished by
her hated rival.  Thus curiously had the prophecy been fulfilled
which warned Sparta of the evils awaiting her under a "lame
sovereignty."  But Agesilaus had not yet abandoned all hope; and
he now directed his views towards the east as the quarter from
which Spartan power might still be resuscitated.  At the age of
80 the indomitable old man proceeded with a force of 1000
hoplites to assist Tachos, king of Egypt, in his revolt against
Persia.  He died at Cyrene on his return to Greece.  His body was
embalmed in wax and splendidly buried in Sparta.



The affairs of the Sicilian Greeks, an important branch of the
Hellenic race, deserve a passing notice.  A few years after the
destruction of the Athenian armament, Dionysius made himself
master of Syracuse, and openly seized upon the supreme power
(B.C. 405).  His reign as tyrant or despot was long and
prosperous.  After conquering the Carthaginians, who more than
once invaded Sicily, he extended his dominion over a great part
of the island, and over a considerable portion of Magna Graecia.
He raised Syracuse to be one of the chief Grecian states, second
in influence, if indeed second, to Sparta alone.  Under his sway
Syracuse was strengthened and embellished with new
fortifications, docks, arsenals, and other public buildings, and
became superior even to Athens in extent and population.

Dionysius was a warm patron of literature, and was anxious to
gain distinction by his literary compositions.  In the midst of
his political and military cares he devoted himself assiduously
to poetry, and not only caused his poems to be publicly recited
at the Olympic games, but repeatedly contended for the prize of
tragedy at Athens.  In accordance with the same spirit we find
him seeking the society of men distinguished in literature and
philosophy.  Plato, who visited Sicily about the year 389 from a
curiosity to see Mount AEtna, was introduced to Dionysius by
Dion.  The high moral tone of Plato's conversation did not
however prove so attractive to Dionysius as it had done to Dion;
and the philosopher was not only dismissed with aversion and
dislike, but even, it seems through the machinations of
Dionysius, seized, bound, and sold for a slave in the island of
AEgina.  He was, however, repurchased by Anniceris of Cyrene, and
sent back to Athens.

Dionysius died in B.C. 367, and was succeeded by his eldest son,
commonly called the younger Dionysius, who was about 25 years of
age at the time of his father's death.  At first he listened to
the counsels of Dion, who had always enjoyed the respect and
confidence of his father.  At the advice of Dion he invited Plato
to Syracuse, where the philosopher was received with the greatest
honour.  His illustrious pupil immediately began to take lessons
in geometry; superfluous dishes disappeared from the royal table;
and Dionysius even betrayed some symptoms of a wish to mitigate
the former rigours of the despotism.  But now the old courtiers
took the alarm.  It was whispered to Dionysius that the whole was
a deep-laid scheme on the part of Dion for the purpose of
effecting a revolution and placing his own nephews on the throne.
[The elder Dionysius had married two wives at the same time:  one
of these was a Locrian woman named Doris; the other, Aristomache,
was a Syracusan, and the sister of Dion.  The younger Dionysius
was his elder son by Doris; but he also had children by
Aristomache.]  These accusations had the desired effect on the
mind of Dionysius, who shortly afterwards expelled Dion from
Sicily.  Plato with difficulty obtained permission to return to
Greece (B.C. 366).  Dionysius now gave way to his vices without
restraint, and became an object of contempt to the Syracusans.
Dion saw that the time had come for avenging his own wrongs as
well as those of his country.  Collecting a small force, he
sailed to Sicily, and suddenly appeared before the gates of
Syracuse during the absence of Dionysius on an expedition to the
coasts of Italy.  The inhabitants, filled with joy, welcomed Dion
as their deliverer:  and Dionysius on his return from Italy found
himself compelled to quit Syracuse (B.C. 356), leaving Dion
undisputed master of the city.  The latter was now in a condition
to carry out all those exalted notions of political life which he
had sought to instil into the mind of Dionysius.  He seems to
have contemplated some political changes; but his immediate and
practical acts were tyrannical, and were rendered still more
unpopular by his overbearing manners.  His unpopularity continued
to increase, till at length one of his bosom friends--the
Athenian Callippus--seized the opportunity to mount to power by
his murder, and caused him to be assassinated in his own house.
This event took place in 353, about three years after the
expulsion of the Dionysian dynasty.  Callippus contrived to
retain the sovereign power only a twelvemonth.  A period of
anarchy followed, during which Dionysius made himself master of
the city by treachery, about B.C. 346.  Dionysius, however, was
not able to re-establish himself firmly in his former power.
Most of the other cities of Sicily had shaken off the yoke of
Syracuse, and were governed by petty despots.  Meantime the
Carthaginians prepared to take advantage of the distracted
condition of Sicily.  In the extremity of their sufferings,
several of the Syracusan exiles appealed for aid to Corinth,
their mother-city.  The application was granted, and Timoleon was
appointed to command an expedition destined for the relief of

Timoleon was distinguished for gentleness as well as for courage,
but towards traitors and despots his hatred was intense.  He had
once saved the life of his elder brother Timophanes in battle at
the imminent peril of his own; but when Timophanes, availing
himself of his situation as commander of the garrison in the
Acrocorinthus, endeavoured to enslave his country, Timoleon did
not hesitate to consent to his death.  Twice before had Timoleon
pleaded with his brother, beseeching him not to destroy the
liberties of his country; but when Timophanes turned a deaf ear
to those appeals, Timoleon connived at the action of his friends,
who put him to death, whilst he himself, bathed in a flood of
tears, stood a little way aloof.  The great body of the citizens
regarded the conduct of Timoleon with love and admiration.  In
the mind of Timoleon, however, their approving verdict was far
more than outweighed by the reproaches and execrations of his
mother.  For many years nothing could prevail upon him to return
to public life.  He buried, himself in the country far from the
haunts of men, till a chance voice in the Corinthian assembly
nominated him as the leader of the expedition against Dionysius.

Roused by the nature of the cause, and the exhortations of his
friends, Timoleon accepted the post thus offered to him.  His
success exceeded his hopes.  As soon as he appeared before
Syracuse, Dionysius, who appears to have abandoned all hope of
ultimate success, surrendered the citadel into his hands, on
condition of being allowed to depart in safety to Corinth (B.C.
343).  Dionysius passed the remainder of his life at Corinth,
where he is said to have displayed some remnants of his former
luxury by the fastidious taste which he showed in the choice of
his viands, unguents, dress, and furniture; whilst his literary
inclinations manifested themselves in teaching the public singers
and actors, and in opening a school for boys.

Timoleon also expelled the other tyrants from the Sicilian
cities, and gained a great victory over the Carthaginians at the
river Crimesus (or Crimissus).  He restored a republican
constitution to Syracuse; and his first public act was to destroy
the impregnable fortifications of the citadel of Ortygia, the
stronghold of the elder and the younger Dionysius.  All the
rewards which Timoleon received for his great services were a
house in Syracuse, and some landed property in the neighbourhood
of the city.  He now sent for his family from Corinth, and became
a Syracusan citizen.  He continued, however, to retain, though in
a private station, the greatest influence in the state.  During
the latter part of his life, though he was totally deprived of
sight, yet, when important affairs were discussed in the
assembly, it was customary to send for Timoleon, who was drawn in
a car into the middle of the theatre amid the shouts and
affectionate greetings of the assembled citizens.  When the
tumult of his reception had subsided he listened patiently to the
debate.  The opinion which he pronounced was usually ratified by
the vote of the assembly; and he then left the theatre amidst the
same cheers which had greeted his arrival.  In this happy and
honoured condition he breathed his last in B.C. 336, a few years
after the battle of Crimesus.  He was splendidly interred at the
public cost, whilst the tears of the whole Syracusan population
followed him to the grave.



The internal dissensions of Greece produced their natural fruits;
and we shall have now to relate the downfall of her independence
and her subjugation by a foreign power.  This power was
Macedonia, an obscure state to the north of Thessaly, hitherto
overlooked and despised, and considered as altogether barbarous,
and without the pale of Grecian civilization.  But though the
Macedonians were not Greeks, their sovereigns claimed to be
descended from an Hellenic race, namely, that of Temenus of
Argos; and it is said that Alexander I. proved his Argive descent
previously to contending at the Olympic games.  Perdiccas is
commonly regarded as the founder of the monarchy; of the history
of which, however, little is known till the reign of Amyntas I.,
his fifth successor, who was contemporary with the Pisistratidae
at Athens.  Under Amyntas, who submitted to the satrap Megabyzus,
Macedonia became subject to Persia, and remained so till after
the battle of Plataea.  The reigns of the succeeding sovereigns
present little that is remarkable, with the exception of that of
Archelaus (B.C. 413).  This monarch transferred his residence
from AEgae to Pella, which thus became the capital.  He
entertained many literary men at his court, such as Euripides,
who ended his days at Pella.  Archelaus was assassinated in B.C.
399, and the crown devolved upon Amyntas II., a representative of
the ancient line.  Amyntas left three sons, the youngest being
the celebrated Philip, of whom we have now to speak.

It has been already mentioned that the youthful Philip was one of
the hostages delivered to the Thebans as security for the peace
effected by Pelopidas.  His residence at Thebes gave him some
tincture of Grecian philosophy and literature; but the most
important lesson which he learned at that city was the art of
war, with all the improved tactics introduced by Epaminondas.
Philip succeeded to the throne at the age of 23 (B.C. 359), and
displayed at the beginning of his reign his extraordinary energy
and abilities.  After defeating the Illyrians he established a
standing army, in which discipline was preserved by the severest
punishments.  He introduced the far-famed Macedonian phalanx,
which was 16 men deep, armed with long projecting spears.

Philip's views were first turned towards the eastern frontiers of
his dominions, where his interests clashed with those of the
Athenians.  A few years before the Athenians had made various
unavailing attempts to obtain possession of Amphipolis, once the
jewel of their empire, but which they had never recovered since
its capture by Brasidas in the eighth year of the Peloponnesian
war.  Its situation at the mouth of the Strymon rendered it also
valuable to Macedonia, not only as a commercial port, but as
opening a passage into Thrace.  The Olynthians were likewise
anxious to enrol Amphipolis as a member of their confederacy, and
accordingly proposed to the Athenians to form an alliance for the
purpose of defending Amphipolis against their mutual enemy.  An
alliance between these two powerful states would have proved an
insurmountable obstacle to Philip's views:  and it was therefore
absolutely necessary to prevent this coalition.  Here we have the
first instance of Philip's skill and duplicity in negotiation.
By secretly promising the Athenians that he would put Amphipolis
into their hands if they would give him possession of Pydna, he
induced them to reject the overtures of the Olynthians; and by
ceding to the latter the town of Anthemus, he bought off their
opposition.  He now laid siege to Amphipolis, which, being thus
left unaided, fell into his hands (B.C. 358).  He then forthwith
marched against Pydna, which surrendered to him; but on the
ground that it was not the Athenians who had put him in
possession of this town, he refused to give up Amphipolis to

Philip had now just reason to dread the enmity of the Athenians,
and accordingly it was his policy to court the favour of the
Olynthians, and to prevent them from renewing their negotiations
with the Athenians.  In order to separate them more effectually,
he assisted the Olynthians in recovering Potidaea, which had
formerly belonged to their confederacy, but was now in the hands
of the Athenians.  On the capture of the town he handed it over
to the Olynthians.  Plutarch relates that the capture of Potidaea
was accompanied with three other fortunate events in the life of
Philip, namely, the prize gained by his chariot at the Olympic
games, a victory of his general Parmenio over the Illyrians, and
the birth of his son Alexander.  These events happened in B.C.

Philip now crossed the Strymon, on the left bank of which lay
Pangaeus, a range of mountains abounding in gold-mines.  He
conquered the district, and founded there a new town called
Philippi, on the site of the ancient Thracian town of Crenides.
By improved methods of working the mines he made them yield an
annual revenue of 1000 talents, nearly 250,000l.

Meanwhile Athens was engaged in a war with her allies, which has
been called the SOCIAL WAR; and which was, perhaps, the reason
why she was obliged to look quietly on whilst Philip was thus
aggrandizing himself at her expense.  This war broke out in B.C.
357.  The chief causes of it seem to have been the contributions
levied upon the allies by the Athenian generals.  The war lasted
three years; and as Artaxerxes, the Persian king, threatened to
support the allies with a fleet of 300 ships, the Athenians were
obliged to consent to a disadvantageous peace, which secured the
independence of the more important allies (B.C. 355).

Another war, which had been raging during the same time, tended
still further to exhaust the Grecian states, and thus pave the
way for Philip's progress to the supremacy.  This was the SACRED
WAR, which broke out between Thebes and Phocis in the same year
as the Social War (B.C. 357).  An ill-feeling had long subsisted
between those two countries.  The Thebans now availed themselves
of the influence which they possessed in the Amphictyonic council
to take vengeance upon the Phocians and accordingly induced this
body to impose a heavy fine upon the latter people, because they
had cultivated a portion of the Cirrhaean plain, which had been
consecrated to the Delphian god, and was to lie waste for ever.
The Phocians pleaded that the payment of the fine would ruin
them; but instead of listening to their remonstrances, the
Amphictyons doubled the amount, and threatened, in case of their
continued refusal to reduce them to the condition of serfs.  Thus
driven to desperation, the Phocians resolved to complete the
sacrilege with which they had been branded, by seizing the very
temple of Delphi itself.  The leader and counsellor of this
enterprise was Philomelus, who, with a force of no more than 2000
men, surprised and took Delphi.  At first, however, he carefully
abstained from touching the sacred treasure; but being hard
pressed by the Thebans and their allies, he threw off the
scruples which he had hitherto assumed, and announced that the
sacred treasures should be converted into a fund for the payment
of mercenaries.  On the death of Philomelus, who fell in battle,
the command was assumed by his brother Onomarchus, who carried on
the war with vigour and success.  But he was checked in his
career by Philip, who had previously been extending his dominion
over Thessaly, and who now assumed the character of a champion of
the Delphic god, and made his soldiers wear wreaths of laurel
plucked in the groves of Tempe.  He penetrated into Thessaly, and
encountered the Phocians near the gulf of Pagassae.  In the
battle which ensued, Onomarchus was slain, and his army totally
defeated (B.C. 352).  This victory made Philip master of
Thessaly.  He now directed his march southwards with the view of
subduing the Phocians; but upon reaching Thermopylae he found the
pass guarded by a strong Athenian force, and was compelled, or
considered it more prudent, to retreat.

After his return from Thessaly Philip's views were directed
towards Thrace and the Chersonese.  It was at this juncture that
Demosthenes stepped forwards as the proclaimed opponent of
Philip, and delivered the first of those celebrated orations
which from their subject have been called "the Philippics."  This
most famous of all the Grecian orators was born in B.C. 382-381.
Having lost his father at the early age of seven, his guardians
abused their trust, and defrauded him of the greater part of his
paternal inheritance.  This misfortune, however, proved one of
the causes which tended to make him an orator.  Demosthenes, as
he advanced towards manhood, perceived with indignation the
conduct of his guardians, for which he resolved to make them
answerable when the proper opportunity should arrive, by accusing
them himself.  His first attempt to speak in public proved a
failure, and he retired from the bema amidst the hootings and
laughter of the citizens.  The more judicious and candid among
his auditors perceived, however, marks of genius in his speech,
and rightly attributed his failure to timidity and want of due
preparation.  Eunomus, an aged citizen, who met him wandering
about the Piraeus in a state of dejection at his ill success,
bade him take courage and persevere.  Demosthenes now withdrew
awhile from public life, and devoted himself perseveringly to
remedy his defects.  They were such as might be lessened, if not
removed, by practice, and consisted chiefly of a weak voice,
imperfect articulation, and ungraceful and inappropriate action.
He derived much assistance from Satyrus the actor, who exercised
him in reciting passages from Sophocles and Euripides.  He
studied the best rhetorical treatises and orations, and is said
to have copied the work of Thucydides with his own hand no fewer
than eight times.  He shut himself up for two or three months
together in a subterranean chamber in order to practise
composition and declamation.  His perseverance was crowned with
success; and he who on the first attempt had descended from the
bema amid the ridicule of the crowd, became at last the most
perfect orator the world has ever seen.

Demosthenes had established himself as a public speaker before
the period which we have now reached; but it is chiefly in
connexion with Philip that we are to view him as a statesman as
well as an orator.  Philip had shown his ambition by the conquest
of Thessaly, and by the part he had taken in the Sacred War; and
Demosthenes now began to regard him as the enemy of the liberties
of Athens and of Greece.  In his first "Philippic" Demosthenes
tried to rouse his countrymen to energetic measures against this
formidable enemy; but his warnings and exhortations produced
little effect, for the Athenians were no longer distinguished by
the same spirit of enterprise which had characterized them in the
days of their supremacy.  No important step was taken to curb the
growing power of Philip; and it was the danger of Olynthus which
first induced the Athenians to prosecute the war with a little
more energy.  In 350 B.C., Philip having captured a town in
Chalcidice, Olynthus began to tremble for her own safety, and
sent envoys to Athens to crave assistance.  Olynthus was still at
the head of thirty-two Greek towns, and the confederacy was a
sort of counterpoise to the power of Philip.  It was on this
occasion that Demosthenes delivered his three Olynthaic orations,
in which he warmly advocated an alliance with Olynthus.

Demosthenes was opposed by a strong party, with which Phocion
commonly acted.  Phocion is one of the most singular and original
characters in Grecian history.  He viewed the multitude and their
affairs with a scorn which he was at no pains to disguise;
receiving their anger with indifference, and their praises with
contempt.  His known probity also gave him weight with the
assembly.  He was the only statesman of whom Demosthenes stood in
awe; who was accustomed to say, when Phocion rose, "Here comes
the pruner of my periods."  But Phocion's desponding views, and
his mistrust of the Athenian people, made him an ill statesman at
a period which demanded the most active patriotism.  He doubtless
injured his country by contributing to check the more enlarged
and patriotic views of Demosthenes; and though his own conduct
was pure and disinterested, he unintentionally threw his weight
on the side of those who, like Demades and others, were actuated
by the basest motives.  This division of opinion rendered the
operations of the Athenians for the aid of the Olynthians languid
and desultory.  Town after town of the confederacy fell before
Philip; and in 347 Olynthus itself was taken.  The whole of the
Chalcidian peninsula thus became a Macedonian province.

The prospects of Athens now became alarming, her possessions in
the Chersonese were threatened, as well as the freedom of the
Greek towns upon the Hellespont.  The Athenians had supported the
Phocians in the Sacred War, and were thus at war with Thebes.  In
order to resist Philip the attention of the Athenians was now
directed towards a reconciliation with Thebes, especially since
the treasures of Delphi were nearly exhausted, and on the other
hand the war was becoming every year more and more burthensome to
the Thebans.  Nor did it seem improbable that a peace might be
concluded not only between those two cities, but among the
Grecian states generally.  It seems to have been this aspect of
affairs that induced Philip to make several indirect overtures to
the Athenians in the summer of B.C. 347.  In spite of subsidies
from Delphi the war had been very onerous to them, and they
received these advances with joy, and eventually agreed to the
terms of a peace.  Having thus gained over the Athenians, Philip
marched through Thermopylae, and entered Phocis, which
surrendered unconditionally at his approach.  He then occupied
Delphi, where he assembled the Amphictyons to pronounce sentence
upon those who bad been concerned in the sacrilege committed
there.  The council decreed that all the cities of Phocia, except
Abae, should be destroyed, and their inhabitants scattered into
villages containing not more than fifty houses each.  Sparta was
deprived of her share in the Amphictyonic privileges; the two
votes in the council possessed by the Phocians were transferred
to the kings of Macedonia; and Philip was to share with the
Thebans and Thessalians the honour of presiding at the Pythian
games (B.C. 346).

The result of the Sacred War rendered Macedon the leading state
in Greece.  Philip at once acquired by it military glory, a
reputation for piety, and an accession of power.  His ambitious
designs were now too plain to be mistaken.  The eyes of the
blindest among the Athenians were at last opened; the promoters
of the peace which had been concluded with Philip incurred the
hatred and suspicion of the people; whilst on the other hand
Demosthenes rose higher than ever in public favour.

Philip was now busy with preparations for the vast projects which
he contemplated, and which embraced an attack upon the Athenian
colonies, as well as upon the Persian empire.  For this purpose
he had organized a considerable naval force as well as an army;
and in the spring of 342 B.C. he set out on an expedition against
Thrace.  His progress soon appeared to menace the Chersonese and
the Athenian possessions in that quarter; and at length the
Athenian troops under Diopithes came into actual collision with
the Macedonians.  In the following year Philip began to attack
the Greek cities north of the Hellespont.  He first besieged and
captured Selymbria on the Propontis, and then turned his arms
against Perinthus and Byzantium.  This roused the Athenians to
more vigorous action.  War was formally declared against Philip,
and a fleet equipped for the immediate relief of Byzantium.
Philip was forced to raise the siege not only of that town but of
Perinthus also, and finally to evacuate the Chersonesus
altogether.  For these acceptable services the grateful
Byzantians erected a colossal statue in honour of Athens.

After this check Philip undertook an expedition against the
Thracians; but meantime his partisans procured for him an
opportunity of marching again into the very heart of Greece.

Amphissa, a Locrian town, having been declared by the
Amphictyonic council guilty of sacrilege, Philip was appointed by
the council as their general to inflict punishment on the
inhabitants of the guilty town.  Accordingly he marched
southwards early in B.C. 338; but instead of proceeding in the
direction of Amphissa, he suddenly seized Elatea, the chief town
in the eastern part of Phocis, thus showing clearly enough that
his real design was against Boeotia and Attica.  Intelligence of
this event reached Athens at night, and caused extraordinary
alarm, In the following morning Demosthenes pressed upon the
assembly the necessity for making the most vigorous preparations
for defence, and especially recommended them to send an embassy
to Thebes, in order to persuade the Thebans to unite with them
against the common enemy.

The details of the war that followed are exceedingly obscure.
Philip appears to have again opened negotiations with the
Thebans, which failed; and we then find the combined Theban and
Athenian armies marching out to meet the Macedonians.  The
decisive battle was fought on the 7th of August, in the plain of
Chaeronea in Boeotia, near the frontier of Phocis (B.C. 338).  In
the Macedonian army was Philip's son, the youthful Alexander, who
was intrusted with the command of one of the wings; and it was a
charge made by him on the Theban sacred band that decided the
fortune of the day.  The sacred band was cut to pieces, without
flinching from the ground which it occupied, and the remainder of
the combined army was completely routed.  Demosthenes, who was
serving as a foot-soldier in the Athenian ranks, has been
absurdly reproached with cowardice because he participated in the
general flight.

The battle of Chaeronea crushed the liberties of Greece, and made
it in reality a province of the Macedonian monarchy.  To Athens
herself the blow was almost as fatal as that of AEgospotami.  But
the manner in which Philip used his victory excited universal
surprise.  He dismissed the Athenian prisoners without ransom,
and voluntarily offered a peace on terms more advantageous than
the Athenians themselves would have ventured to propose.  Philip,
indeed, seems to have regarded Athens with a sort of love and
respect, as the centre of art and refinement, for his treatment
of the Thebans was very different, and marked by great harshness
and severity.  They were compelled to recall their exiles, in
whose hands the government was placed, whilst a Macedonian
garrison was established in the Cadmea.

A congress of the Grecian states was now summoned at Corinth, in
which war was declared against Persia, and Philip was appointed
generalissimo of the expedition.

In the spring of B.C. 336 Philip sent some forces into Asia,
under the command of Attalus, Parmenio, and Amyntas, which were
designed to engage the Greek cities of Asia in the expedition.
But before quitting Macedonia, Philip determined to provide for
the safety of his dominions by celebrating the marriage of his
daughter with Alexander of Epirus.  It was solemnized at AEgae,
the ancient capital of Macedonia, with much pomp, including
banquets, and musical and theatrical entertainments.  The day
after the nuptials was dedicated to theatrical entertainments.
The festival was opened with a procession of the images of the
twelve Olympian deities, with which was associated that of Philip
himself.  The monarch took part in the procession, dressed in
white robes, and crowned with a chaplet.  Whilst thus proceeding
through the city, a youth suddenly rushed out of the crowd, and,
drawing a long sword which he had concealed under his clothes,
plunged it into Philip's side, who fell dead upon the spot.  The
assassin was pursued by some of the royal guards, and, having
stumbled in his flight, was despatched before he could reach the
place where horses had been provided for his escape.  His name
was Pausanias.  He was a youth of noble birth, and we are told
that his motive for taking Philip's life was that the king had
refused to punish an outrage which Attalus had committed against

Thus fell Philip of Macedon in the twenty-fourth year of his
reign and forty-seventh of his age (B.C. 336).  When we reflect
upon his achievements, and how, partly by policy and partly by
arms, he converted his originally poor and distracted kingdom
into the mistress of Greece, we must acknowledge him to have been
an extraordinary, if not a great man, in the better sense of that
term.  His views and his ambition were certainly as large as
those of his son Alexander, but he was prevented by a premature
death from carrying them out; nor would Alexander himself have
been able to perform his great achievements had not Philip handed
down to him all the means and instruments which they required.



Alexander, at the time of his father's death, was in his
twentieth year, having been born in B.C. 356.  His early
education was entrusted to Leonidas, a kinsman of his mother, a
man of severe and parsimonious character, who trained him with
Spartan simplicity and hardihood; whilst Lysimachus, a sort of
under-governor, early inspired the young prince with ambitious
notions, by teaching him to love and emulate the heroes of the
Iliad.  according to the traditions of his family, the blood of
Achilles actually ran in the veins of Alexander; [His mother
Olympias was the daughter of Neoptolemus, king of Epirus who
claimed descent from Pyrrhus, the son of Achilles.]  and
Lysimachus nourished the feeling which that circumstance was
calculated to awaken by giving him the name of that hero, whilst
he called Philip Peleus, and himself Phoenix.  But the most
striking feature in Alexander's education was, that he had
Aristotle for his teacher, and that thus the greatest conqueror
of the material world received the instructions of him who has
exercised the most extensive empire over the human intellect.  It
was probably at about the age of thirteen that he first received
the lessons of Aristotle, and they can hardly have continued more
than three years, for Alexander soon left the schools for the
employments of active life.  At the age of sixteen we find him
regent of Macedonia during Philip's absence; and at eighteen we
have seen him filling a prominent military post at the battle of

On succeeding to the throne Alexander announced his intention of
prosecuting his father's expedition into Asia; but it was first
necessary for him to settle the affairs of Greece, where the news
of Philip's assassination, and the accession of so young a
prince, had excited in several states a hope of shaking off the
Macedonian yoke.  Athens was the centre of these movements.
Demosthenes, although in mourning for the recent loss of an only
daughter, now came abroad dressed in white, and crowned with a
chaplet, in which attire he was seen sacrificing at one of the
public altars.  He also moved a decree that Philip's death should
be celebrated by a public thanksgiving, and that religious
honours should be paid to the memory of Pausanias.  At the same
time he made vigorous preparations for action.  He despatched
envoys to the principal Grecian states for the purpose of
inciting them against Macedon.  Sparta, and the whole
Peloponnesus, with the exception of Megalopolis and Messenia,
seemed inclined to shake off their compulsory alliance.  Even the
Thebans rose against the dominant oligarchy, although the Cadmea
was in the hands of the Macedonians.

The activity of Alexander disconcerted all these movements.
Having marched through Thessaly, he assembled the Amphictyonic
council at Thermopylae, who conferred upon him the command with
which they had invested his father during the Sacred War.  He
then advanced rapidly upon Thebes, and thus prevented the
meditated revolution, The Athenians sent ambassadors to deprecate
his wrath, who were graciously accepted.  He then convened a
general congress at Corinth, where he was appointed generalissimo
for the Persian war in place of his father.  Most of the
philosophers and persons of note near Corinth came to
congratulate him on this occasion; but Diognes of Sinope who was
then living in one of the suburbs of Corinth, did not make his
appearance.  Alexander therefore resolved to pay a visit to the
eccentric cynic, whom he found basking in the sun.  On the
approach of Alexander with a numerous retinue, Diogenes raised
himself up a little, and the monarch affably inquired how he
could serve him?  "By standing out of my sunshine," replied the
churlish philosopher.  Alexander was stung with surprise at a
behaviour to which he was so little accustomed; but whilst his
courtiers were ridiculing the manners of the cynic, he turned to
them and said, "Were I not Alexander, I should like to be

The result of the Congress might be considered a settlement of
the affairs of Greece.  Alexander then returned to Macedonia in
the hope of being able to begin his Persian expedition in the
spring of B.C. 335; but reports of disturbances among the
Thracians and Triballians diverted his attention to that quarter.
He therefore crossed Mount Haemus (the Balkan) and marched into
the territory of the Triballians, defeated their forces, and
pursued them to the Danube, which he crossed.  After acquiring a
large booty he regained the banks of the Danube, and thence
marched against the Illyrians and Taulantians, whom he speedily
reduced to obedience.

During Alexander's absence on these expeditions no tidings were
heard of him for a considerable time, and a report of his death
was industriously spread in Southern Greece.  The Thebans rose
and besieged the Macedonian garrison in the Cadmea, at the same
time inviting other states to declare their independence.
Demosthenes was active in aiding the movement.  He persuaded the
Athenians to furnish the Thebans with subsidies and to assure
them of their support and alliance.  But the rapidity of
Alexander again crushed the insurrection in the bud.  Before the
Thebans discovered that the report of his death was false he had
already arrived at Onchestus in Boeotia.  Alexander was willing
to afford them an opportunity for repentance, and marched slowly
to the foot of the Cadmea.  But the leaders of the insurrection,
believing themselves irretrievably compromised, replied with
taunts to Alexander's proposals for peace, and excited the people
to the most desperate resistance.  An engagement was prematurely
brought on by one of the generals of Alexander, in which some of
the Macedonian troops were put to the rout; but Alexander, coming
up with the phalanx, whilst the Thebans were in the disorder of
pursuit, drove them back in turn and entered the gates along with
them, when a fearful massacre ensued committed principally by the
Thracians in Alexander's service.  Six thousand Thebans are said
to have been slain, and thirty thousand were made prisoners.  The
doom of the conquered city was referred to the allies, who
decreed her destruction.  The grounds of the verdict bear the
impress of a tyrannical hypocrisy.  They rested on the conduct of
the Thebans during the Persian war, on their treatment of
Plataea, and on their enmity to Athens.  The inhabitants were
sold as slaves, and all the houses, except that of Pindar, were
levelled with the ground.  The Cadmea was preserved to be
occupied by a Macedonian garrison.  Thebes seems to have been
thus harshly treated as an example to the rest of Greece, for
towards the other states, which were now eager to make their
excuses and submission, Alexander showed much forbearance and
lenity.  The conduct of the Athenians exhibits them deeply sunk
in degradation.  When they heard of the chastisement indicted
upon Thebes, they immediately voted, on the motion of
Demosthenes, that ambassadors should be sent to congratulate
Alexander on his safe return from his northern expeditions, and
on his recent success.  Alexander in reply wrote a letter,
demanding that eight or ten of the leading Athenian orators
should be delivered up to him.  At the head of the list was
Demosthenes.  In this dilemma, Phocion, who did not wish to speak
upon such a question, was loudly called upon by the people for
his opinion; when he rose and said that the persons whom
Alexander demanded had brought the state into such a miserable
plight that they deserved to be surrendered, and that for his own
part he should be very happy to die for the commonwealth.  At the
same time he advised them to try the effect of intercession with
Alexander; and it was at last only by his own personal
application to that monarch with whom he was a great favourite,
that the orators were spared.  According to another account,
however, the wrath of Alexander was appeased by the orator
Demades, who received from the Athenians a reward of five talents
for his services.  It was at this time that Alexander is said to
have sent a present of 100 talents to Phocion.  But Phocion asked
the persons who brought the money--"Why he should be selected for
such a bounty?"   "Because," they replied, "Alexander considers
you the only just and honest man."   "Then," said Phocion, "let
him suffer me to be what I seem, and to retain that character."
And when the envoys went to his house and beheld the frugality
with which he lived, they perceived that the man who refused such
a gift was wealthier than he who offered it.

Having thus put the affairs of Greece on a satisfactory footing,
Alexander marched for the Hellespont in the spring of B.C. 334,
leaving Antipater regent of Macedonia in his absence, with a
force of 12,000 foot and 1500 horse.  Alexander's own army
consisted of only about 50,000 foot and 5000 horse.  Of the
infantry about 12,000 were Macedonians, and these composed the
pith of the celebrated Macedonian phalanx.  Such was the force
with which he proposed to attack the immense but ill-cemented
empire of Persia, which, like the empires of Turkey or Austria in
modern times, consisted of various nations and races with
different religions and manners, and speaking different
languages; the only bond of union being the dominant military
power of the ruling nation, which itself formed only a small
numerical portion of the empire.  The remote provinces, like
those of Asia Minor, were administered by satraps and military
governors who enjoyed an almost independent authority.  Before
Alexander departed he distributed most of the crown property
among his friends, and when Perdiccas asked him what he had
reserved for himself he replied, "My hopes."

A march of sixteen days brought Alexander to Sestos, where a
large fleet and a number of transports had been collected for the
embarkation of his army.  He steered with his own hand the vessel
in which he sailed towards the very spot where the Achaeans were
said to have landed when proceeding to the Trojan war.  He was,
as we have said, a great admirer of Homer, a copy of whose works
he always carried with him; and on landing on the Asiatic coast
he made it his first business to visit the plain of Troy.  He
then proceeded to Sigeum, where he crowned with a garland the
pillar said to mark the tumulus of his mythical ancestor
Achilles, and, according to custom, ran round it naked with his

Alexander then marched northwards along the coast of the
Propontis.  The satraps of Lydia and Ionia, together with other
Persian generals, were encamped on the river Granicus, with a
force of 20,000 Greek mercenaries, and about an equal number of
native cavalry, with which they prepared to dispute the passage
of the river.  A Rhodian, named Memnon, had the chief command.
The veteran general Parmenio advised Alexander to delay the
attack till the following morning; to which he replied, that it
would be a bad omen at the beginning of his expedition, if, after
passing the Hellespont, he should be stopped by a paltry stream.
Thereupon he directed his cavalry to cross the river, and
followed himself at the head of the phalanx.  The passage,
however, was by no means easy.  The stream was in many parts so
deep as to be hardly fordable, and the opposite bank was steep
and rugged.  The cavalry had great difficulty in maintaining
their ground till Alexander came up to their relief.  He
immediately charged into the thickest of the fray, and exposed
himself so much that his life was often in imminent danger, and
on one occasion was saved only by the interposition of his friend
Clitus.  Having routed the Persians, he next attacked the Greek
mercenaries, 2000 of whom were made prisoners, and the rest
nearly all cut to pieces, In this engagement he killed two
Persian officers with his own hand.

Alexander now marched southwards towards Sardis, which
surrendered before he came within sight of its walls.  Having
left a garrison in that city, he arrived after a four days' march
before Ephesus, which likewise capitulated on his approach.
Magnesia, Tralles, and Miletus next fell into his hands, the last
after a short siege.  Halicarnassus made more resistance.  It was
obliged to be regularly approached; but at length Memnon, finding
it no longer tenable, set fire to it in the night, and crossed
over to Cos.  Alexander caused it to be razed to the ground, and
pursued his march along the southern coast of Asia Minor, with
the view of seizing those towns which might afford shelter to a
Persian fleet.  The winter was now approaching, and Alexander
sent a considerable part of his army under Parmenio into winter-
quarters at Sardis.  He also sent back to Macedonia such officers
and soldiers as had been recently married, on condition that they
should return in the spring with what reinforcements they could
raise; and with the same view he despatched an officer to recruit
in the Peloponnesus.  Meanwhile he himself with a chosen body
proceeded along the coasts of Lycia and Pamphylia, having
instructed Parmenio to rejoin him in Phrygia in the spring, with
the main body.  After he had crossed the Xanthus most of the
Lycian towns tendered their submission.  On the borders of Lycia
and Pamphylia, Mount Climax, a branch of the Taurus range, runs
abruptly into the sea, leaving only a narrow passage at its foot,
which is frequently overflowed.  This was the case at the time of
Alexander's approach.  He therefore sent his main body by a long
and difficult road across the mountains to Perge; but he himself
who loved danger for its own sake, proceeded with a chosen band
along the shore, wading through water that was breast-high for
nearly a whole day.  Then forcing his way northwards through the
barbarous tribes which inhabited the mountains of Pisidia, he
encamped in the neighbourhood of Gordium in Phrygia.  Here he was
rejoined by Parmenio and by the new levies from Greece.  Gordium
had been the capital of the early Phrygian kings, and in it was
preserved with superstitious veneration the chariot or waggon in
which the celebrated Midas, the son of Gordius, together with his
parents, had entered the town, and in conformity with an oracle
had been elevated to the monarchy.  An ancient prophecy promised
the sovereignty of Asia to him who should untie the knot of bark
which fastened the yoke of the waggon to the pole.  Alexander
repaired to the Acropolis, where the waggon was preserved, to
attempt this adventure.  Whether he undid the knot by drawing out
a peg, or cut it through with his sword, is a matter of doubt;
but that he had fulfilled the prediction was placed beyond
dispute that very night by a great storm of thunder and

In the spring of 333 Alexander pursued his march eastwards, and
on arriving at Ancyra received the submission of the
Paphlagonians.  He then advanced through Cappadocia without
resistance; and forcing his way through the passes of Mount
Taurus (the PYLAE CILICIAE), he descended into the plains of
Cilicia.  Hence he pushed on rapidly to Tarsus, which he found
abandoned by the enemy.  Whilst still heated with the march
Alexander plunged into the clear but cold stream of the Cydnus,
which runs by the town.  The result was a fever, which soon
became so violent as to threaten his life.  An Acarnanian
physician, named Philip, who accompanied him, prescribed a
remedy; but at the same time Alexander received a letter
informing him that Philip had been bribed by Darius, the Persian
king, to poison him.  He had however, too much confidence in the
trusty Philip to believe the accusation and handed him the letter
whilst he drank the draught.  Either the medicine, or Alexander's
youthful constitution, at length triumphed over the disorder.
After remaining some time at Tarsus, he continued his march along
the coast to Mallus, where he first received certain tidings of
the great Persian army, commanded by Darius in person.  It is
said to have consisted of 600,000 fighting men, besides all that
train of attendants which usually accompanied the march of a
Persian monarch.  Alexander found Darius encamped near Issus on
the right bank of the little river Pinarus.  The Persian king
could hardly have been caught in a more unfavourable position,
since the narrow and rugged plain between Mount Amanus and the
sea afforded no scope for the evolutions of large bodies, and
thus entirely deprived him of the advantage of his numerical
superiority.  Alexander occupied the pass between Syria and
Cilicia at midnight, and at daybreak began to descend into the
plain of the Pinarus, ordering his troops to deploy into line as
the ground expanded and thus to arrive in battle-array before the
Persians.  Darius had thrown 30,000 cavalry and 20,000 infantry
across the river, to check the advance of the Macedonians; whilst
on the right bank were drawn up his choicest Persian troops to
the number of 60,000, together with 30,000 Greek mercenaries, who
formed the centre, and on whom he chiefly relied.  These, it
appears, were all that the breadth of the plain allowed to be
drawn up in line.  The remainder of the vast host were posted in
separate bodies in the farther parts of the plain, and were
unable to take any share in the combat.  Darius placed himself in
the centre of the line in a magnificent state chariot.  The banks
of the Pinarus were in many parts steep, and where they were
level Darius had caused them to be intrenched.  As Alexander
advanced, the Persian cavalry which had been thrown across the
river were recalled; but the 20,000 infantry had been driven into
the mountains, where Alexander held them in check with a small
body of horse.  The left wing of the Macedonians, under the
command of Parmenio, was ordered to keep near the sea, to prevent
being outflanked.  The right wing was led by Alexander in person,
who rushed impetuously into the water, and was soon engaged in
close combat with the Persians.  The latter were immediately
routed; but what chiefly decided the fortune of the day was the
timidity of Darius himself, who, on beholding the defeat of his
left wing, immediately took to flight.  His example was followed
by his whole army.  One hundred thousand Persians are said to
have been left upon the field.  On reaching the hills Darius
threw aside his royal robes his bow and shield, and, mounting a
fleet courser, was soon out of reach of pursuit.  The Persian
camp became the spoil of the Macedonians; but the tent of Darius,
together with his chariot, robes, and arms, was reserved for
Alexander himself.  It was now that the Macedonian king first had
ocular proof of the nature of Eastern royalty.  One compartment
of the tent of Darius had been fitted up as a bath, which steamed
with the richest odours; whilst another presented a magnificent
pavilion, containing a table richly spread for the banquet of
Darius.  But from an adjoining tent issued the wail of female
voices, where Sisygambis the mother, and Statira the wife of
Darius, were lamenting the supposed death of the Persian monarch.
Alexander sent to assure them of his safety, and ordered them to
be treated with the most delicate and respectful attention.

Such was the memorable battle of Issus, fought in November, B.C.
333.  A large treasure which Parmenio was sent forward with a
detachment to seize, fell into the hands of the Macedonians at
Damascus.  Another favourable result of the victory was that it
suppressed some attempts at revolt from the Macedonian power,
which with the support of Persia, had been manifested in Greece.
But, in order to put a complete stop to all such intrigues, which
chiefly depended on the assistance of a Persian fleet, Alexander
resolved to seize Phoenicia and Egypt, and thus to strike at the
root of the Persian maritime power.

Meanwhile, Darius, attended by a body of only 4000 fugitives, had
crossed the Euphrates at Thapsacus.  Before he had set out from
Babylon the whole forces of the empire had been summoned; but he
had not thought it worth while to wait for what he deemed a
merely useless encumbrance; and the more distant levies, which
comprised some of the best troops of the empire, were still
hastening towards Babylon.  In a short time, therefore, he would
be at the head of a still more numerous host than that which had
fought at Issus; yet he thought it safer to open negotiations
with Alexander than to trust to the chance of arms.  With this
view he sent a letter to Alexander, who was now at Marathus in
Phoenicia, proposing to become his friend and ally; but Alexander
rejected all his overtures, and told him that he must in future
be addressed not in the language of an equal, but of a subject.

As Alexander advanced southwards, all the towns of Phoenicia
hastened to open their gates; the inhabitants of Sidon even
hailed him as their deliverer.  Tyre, also, sent to tender her
submission; but coupled with reservations by no means acceptable
to a youthful conqueror in the full tide of success.  Alexander
affected to receive their offer as an unconditional surrender,
and told them that he would visit their city and offer sacrifices
to Melcart, a Tyrian deity, who was considered as identical with
the Grecian Hercules.  This brought the matter to an issue.  The
Tyrians now informed him that they could not admit any foreigners
within their walls, and that, if he wished to sacrifice to
Melcart, he would find another and more ancient shrine in Old
Tyre, on the mainland.  Alexander indignantly dismissed the
Tyrian ambassadors, and announced his intention of laying siege
to their city.  The Tyrians probably deemed it impregnable.  It
was by nature a place of great strength, and had been rendered
still stronger by art.  The island on which it stood was half a
mile distant from the mainland; and though the channel was
shallow near the coast, it deepened to three fathoms near the
island.  The shores of the island were rocky and precipitous, and
the walls rose from the cliffs to the height of 150 feet in solid
masonry.  As Alexander possessed no ships, the only method by
which he could approach the town was by constructing a causeway,
the materials for which were collected from the forests of
Libanus and the ruins of Old Tyre.  After overcoming many
difficulties the mole was at length pushed to the foot of the
walls; and as soon as Alexander had effected a practicable
breach, he ordered a general assault both by land and sea.  The
breach was stormed under the immediate inspection of Alexander
himself; and though the Tyrians made a desperate resistance, they
were at length overpowered, when the city became one wide scene
of indiscriminate carnage and plunder.  The siege had lasted
seven months, and the Macedonians were so exasperated by the
difficulties and dangers they had undergone that they granted no
quarter.  Eight thousand of the citizens are said to have been
massacred; and the remainder, with the exception of the king and
some of the principal men, who had taken refuge in the temple of
Melcart, were sold into slavery to the number of 30,000.  Tyre
was taken in the month of July in 332.

Whilst Alexander was engaged in the siege of Tyre, Darius made
him further and more advantageous proposals.  He now offered
10,000 talents as the ransom of his family, together with all the
Provinces west of the Euphrates, and his daughter Barsine in
marriage, as the conditions of a peace.  When these offers were
submitted to the council Parmenio was not unnaturally struck with
their magnificence, and observed, that were he Alexander he would
accept them.  "and so would I," replied the king, "were I
Parmenio."  Darius, therefore, prepared himself for a desperate

After the fall of Tyre, Alexander marched with his army towards
Egypt, whilst his fleet proceeded along the coast.  Gaza, a
strong fortress on the sea-shore, obstinately held out, and
delayed his progress three or four months.  After the capture of
this city Alexander met his fleet at Pelusium, and ordered it to
sail up the Nile as far as Memphis, whither he himself marched
with his army across the desert.  He conciliated the affection of
the Egyptians by the respect with which he treated their national
superstitions, whilst the Persians by an opposite line of conduct
had incurred their deadliest hatred.  He then sailed down the
western branch of the Nile, and at its mouth traced the plan of
the new city of Alexandria, which for many centuries continued to
be not only the grand emporium of Europe, Africa, and India, but
also the principal centre of intellectual life.  Being now on the
confines of Libya, Alexander resolved to visit the celebrated
oracle of Zeus (Jupiter) Ammon, which lay in the bosom of the
Libyan wilderness.  The conqueror was received by the priests
with all the honours of sacred pomp.  He consulted the oracle in
secret, and is said never to have disclosed the answer which he
received; though that it was an answer that contented him
appeared from the magnificence of the offerings which he made to
the god.  Some say that Ammon saluted him as the son of Zeus.

Alexander returned to Phoenicia in the spring of 331.  He then
directed his march through Samaria, and arrived at Thapsacus on
the Euphrates about the end of August.  after crossing the river
he struck to the north-east through a fertile and well-supplied
country.  On his march he was told that Darius was posted with an
immense force on the left bank of the Tigris; but on arriving at
that river he found nobody to dispute his passage.  He then
proceeded southwards along its banks, and after four days' march
fell in with a few squadrons of the enemy's cavalry.  From some
of these who were made prisoners Alexander learned that Darius
was encamped with his host on one of the extensive plains between
the Tigris and the mountains of Kurdistan, near a village called
Gaugamela (the Camel's House).  The town of Arbela, after which
the battle that ensued is commonly named, lay at about twenty
miles distance, and there Darius had deposited his baggage and
treasure.  That monarch had been easily persuaded that his former
defeat was owing solely to the nature of the ground; and,
therefore, he now selected a wide plain for an engagement, where
there was abundant room for his multitudinous infantry, and for
the evolutions of his horsemen and charioteers.  Alexander, after
giving his army a few days' rest, set out to meet the enemy soon
after midnight, in order that he might come up with them about
daybreak.  On ascending some sand-hills the whole array of the
Persians suddenly burst upon the view of the Macedonians, at the
distance of three or four miles.  Darius, as usual, occupied the
centre, surrounded by his body-guard and chosen troops.  In front
of the royal position were ranged the war-chariots and elephants,
and on either side the Greek mercenaries, to the number, it is
said, of 50,000.  Alexander spent the first day in surveying the
ground and preparing for the attack; he also addressed his
troops, pointing out to them that the prize of victory would not
be a mere province, but the dominion of all Asia.  Yet so great
was the tranquillity with which he contemplated the result, that
at daybreak on the following morning, when the officers came to
receive his final instructions, they found him in a deep slumber.
His army, which consisted only of 40,000 foot and 7000 horse, was
drawn up in the order which he usually observed, namely, with the
phalanx in the centre in six divisions, and the Macedonian
cavalry on the right, where Alexander himself took his station.
The Persians, fearful of being surprised, had stood under arms
the whole night, so that the morning found them exhausted and
dispirited.  Some of them, however, fought with considerable
bravery; but when Alexander had succeeded in breaking their line
by an impetuous charge, Darius mounted a fleet horse and took to
flight, as at Issus, though the fortune of the day was yet far
from having been decided.  At length, however, the rout became
general.  Whilst daylight lasted Alexander pursued the flying
enemy as far as the banks of the Lycus, or Greater Zab, where
thousands of the Persians perished in the attempt to pass the
river.  After resting his men a few hours Alexander continued the
pursuit at midnight in the hope of overtaking Darius at Arbela.
The Persian monarch, however, had continued his flight without
stopping; but the whole of the royal baggage and treasure was

Finding any further pursuit of Darius hopeless, Alexander now
directed his march towards Babylon.  At a little distance from
the city the greater part of the population came out to meet him,
headed by their priests and magistrates, tendering their
submission and bearing with them magnificent presents.  Alexander
then made his triumphant entry into Babylon, riding in a chariot
at the head of his army.  The streets were strewed with flowers,
incense smoked on either hand on silver altars, and the priests
celebrated his entry with hymns.  Nor was this a mere display of
a compulsory obedience.  Under the Persian sway the Chaldaean
religion had been oppressed and persecuted; the temple of Belus
had been destroyed and still lay in ruins; and both priests and
people consequently rejoiced at the downfall of a dynasty from
which they had suffered so much wrong.  Alexander observed here
the same politic conduct which he had adopted in Egypt.  He
caused the ruined temples to be restored, and proposed to offer
personally, but under the direction of the priests, a sacrifice
to Belus.  Alexander contemplated making Babylon the capital of
his future empire.  His army was rewarded with a large donative
from the Persian treasury; and after being allowed to indulge for
some time in the luxury of Babylon, was again put in motion,
towards the middle of November, for Susa.  It was there that the
Persian treasures were chiefly accumulated, and Alexander had
despatched one of his generals to take possession of the city
immediately after the battle of Arbela.  It was surrendered
without a blow by the satrap Abulites.  The treasure found there
amounted to 40,000 talents in gold and silver bullion, and 9000
in gold Darics.  But among all these riches the interest of the
Greeks must have been excited in a lively manner by the discovery
of the spoils carried off from Greece by Xerxes.  Among them were
the bronze statues of Harmodius and Aristogiton, which Alexander
now sent back to Athens, and which were long afterwards preserved
in the Ceramicus.

At Susa Alexander received reinforcements of about 15,000 men
from Greece.  He then directed his march south-eastwards towards
Persepolis.  His road lay through the mountainous territory of
the Uxians, who refused him a passage unless he paid the usual
tribute which they were in the habit of extorting even from the
Persian kings.  But Alexander routed them with great slaughter.
He then advanced rapidly to Persepolis, whose magnificent ruins
still attest its ancient splendour.  It was the real capital of
the Persian kings, though they generally resided at Susa during
the winter, and at Ecbatana in summer.  The treasure found there
exceeded that both of Babylon and Susa, and is said to have
amounted to 120,000 talents or nearly 30,000,000l. sterling.  It
was here that Alexander is related to have committed an act of
senseless folly, by firing with his own hand the ancient and
magnificent palace of the Persian kings; of which the most
charitable version is that he committed the act when heated with
wine at the instigation of Thais, an Athenian courtezan.  By some
writers, however, the story is altogether disbelieved, and the
real destruction of Persepolis referred to the Mahommedan epoch.
Whilst at Persepolis, Alexander visited the tomb of Cyrus, the
founder of the Persian monarchy, which was situated at a little
distance, at a city called Pasargadae.

Thus in between three and four years after crossing the
Hellespont Alexander had established himself on the Persian
throne.  But Darius was not yet in his power.  After the battle
of Arbela that monarch had fled to Ecbatana.  It was not till
about four months after the battle of Arbela, and consequently
early in 330, that Alexander quitted Persepolis to resume the
pursuit of Darius.  On approaching Ecbatana he learned that the
Persian monarch had already fled with the little army which still
adhered to him.  Alexander, with his main body, then pursued
Darius through Media by forced marches and reached Rhagae, a
distance of three hundred miles from Ecbatana, in eleven days.
Such was the rapidity of the march that many men and horses died
of fatigue.  At Rhagae he heard that Darius had already passed
the defile called the "Caspian Gates," leading into the Bactrian
provinces; and, as that pass was fifty miles distant, urgent
pursuit was evidently useless.  He therefore allowed his troops
five days' rest, and then resumed his march.  Soon after passing
the Gates he learned that Darius had been seized and loaded with
chains by his own satrap Bessus, who entertained the design of
establishing himself in Bactria as an independent sovereign.
This intelligence stimulated Alexander to make still further
haste with part of his cavalry and a chosen body of foot.  On the
fourth day he succeeded in overtaking the fugitives with his
cavalry, having been obliged to leave the infantry behind, with
directions to follow more at leisure.  The enemy, who did not
know his real strength, were struck with consternation at his
appearance, and fled precipitately.  Bessus and his adherents now
endeavoured to persuade Darius to fly with them, and provided a
fleet horse for that purpose.  But the Persian monarch, who had
already experienced the generosity of Alexander in the treatment
of his captive family, preferred to fall into his hands,
whereupon the conspirators mortally wounded him in the chariot in
which they kept him confined, and then took to flight.  Darius
expired before Alexander could come up, who threw his own cloak
over the body.  He then ordered him to be magnificently buried in
the tomb of his ancestors, and provided for the fitting education
of his children.

The next three years were employed by Alexander in subduing
Hyrcania, Drangiana, Bactria, and Sogdiana, and the other
northern provinces of the Persian empire.  In these distant
regions he founded several cities, one of which in Aria, called
after him (Alexandria Ariorum), is still, under the name of
HERAT, one of the chief cities in central Asia.  Alexander's stay
in Prophthasia, the capital of Drangiana, was signalized by a
supposed conspiracy against his life, formed by Philotas, the son
of Parmenio.  Alexander had long entertained suspicions of
Philotas.  But the immediate subject of accusation against him
was that he had not revealed a conspiracy which was reported to
be forming against Alexander's life, and which he had deemed too
contemptible to notice.  He was consequently suspected of being
implicated in it; and on being put to the torture he not only
confessed his own guilt in his agonies, but also implicated his
father.  Philotas was executed, and an order was sent to
Ecbatana, where Parmenio then was, directing that veteran general
to be put to death.  A letter, purporting to be from his son, was
handed to him; and whilst the old man was engaged in reading it,
Polydamus, his intimate friend, together with some others of
Alexander's principal officers, fell upon and slew him.  His head
was carried to Alexander.

Meantime Bessus had assumed the royal dignity in Bactria; but
upon Alexander's approach he fled across the Oxus into Sogdiana.
Early in the summer of 329 Alexander followed him across the
Oxus; and shortly afterwards Bessus was betrayed by two of his
own officers into the hands of Alexander.  Bessus was carried to
Zariaspa, the capital of Bactria, where he was brought before a
Persian court, and put to death in a cruel and barbarous manner.

Alexander even crossed the river Jaxartes (SIR), and defeated the
Scythians.  Sogdiana alone of the northern provinces offered any
serious resistance to his arms.  Accordingly in 328 he again
crossed the Oxus.  He divided his army into five bodies, ordering
them to scour the country in different directions.  With the
troops under his own command he marched against the fortress
called the Sogdian Rock, seated on an isolated hill, so
precipitous as to be deemed inaccessible, and so well supplied
with provisions as to defy a blockade.  The summons to surrender
was treated with derision by the commander, who inquired whether
the Macedonians had wings?  But a small body of Macedonians
having succeeded in scaling some heights which overhung the
fortress, the garrison became so alarmed that they immediately
surrendered.  To this place a Bactrian named Oxyartes, an
adherent of Bessus, had sent his daughters for safety.  One of
them, named Roxana, was of surpassing beauty, and Alexander made
her the partner of his throne (B.C. 328).

At Maracanda (now SAMARCAND) he appointed his friend Clitus
satrap of Bactria.  On the eve of the parting of the two friends
Alexander celebrated a festival in honour of the Dioscuri (Castor
and Pollux), though the day was sacred to Dionysus (Bacchus).
The banquet was attended by several parasites and literary
flatterers, who magnified the praises of Alexander with
extravagant and nauseous flattery.  Clitus, whom wine had
released from all prudent reserve, sternly rebuked their fulsome
adulation; and, as the conversation turned on the comparative
merits of the exploits of Alexander and his father Philip, he did
not hesitate to prefer the exploits of the latter.  He reminded
Alexander of his former services, and, stretching forth his hand,
exclaimed, "It was this hand Alexander, which saved your life at
the battle of the Granicus!"  The king, who was also flushed with
wine, was so enraged by these remarks, that he rushed at Clitus
with the intention of killing him on the spot, but he was held
back by his friends, whilst Clitus was at the same time hurried
out of the room.  Alexander, however, was no sooner released
than, snatching a spear, he sprang to the door, and meeting
Clitus, who was returning in equal fury to brave his anger, ran
him through the body.  But when the deed was done he was seized
with repentance and remorse.  He flung himself on his couch and
remained for three whole days in an agony of grief, refusing all
sustenance, and calling on the names of Clitus and of his sister
Lanice who had been his nurse.  It was not till his bodily
strength began to fail through protracted abstinence that he at
last became more composed, and consented to listen to the
consolations of his friends, and the words of the soothsayers,
who ascribed the murder of Clitus to a temporary frenzy with
which Dionysus had visited him as a punishment for neglecting the
celebration of his festival.

After reducing Sogdiana, Alexander returned into Bactria in 327,
and began to prepare far his projected expedition into India.
While he was thus employed a plot was formed against his life by
the royal pages, incited by Hermolaus, one of their number, who
had been punished with stripes for anticipating the king during a
hunting party in slaying a wild boar.  Hermolaus and his
associates, among whom was Callisthenes, a pupil of Aristotle,
were first tortured, and then put to death.  It seems certain
that a conspiracy existed; but no less certain that the growing
pride and haughtiness of Alexander were gradually alienating from
him the hearts of his followers.

Alexander did not leave Bactria till late in the spring.  He
crossed the Indus by a bridge of boats near Taxila, the present
ATTOCK, where the river is about 1000 feet broad, and very deep.
He now found himself in the district at present called the PENJ-
AB (or the FIVE RIVERS).  Taxiles, the sovereign of the district,
at once surrendered Taxila, his capital and joined the Macedonian
force with 5000 men.  Hence Alexander proceeded with little
resistance to the river Haydaspes (BEHUT or JELUM).  On the
opposite bank, Porus, a powerful Indian king, prepared to dispute
his progress with a numerous and well-appointed force.
Alexander, however, by a skilful stratagem conveyed his army
safely across the river.  An obstinate battle then ensued.  In
the army of Porus were many elephants, the sight and smell of
which frightened the horses of Alexander's cavalry.  But these
unwieldy animals ultimately proved as dangerous to the Indians as
to the Greeks; for when driven into a narrow space they became
unmanageable, and created great confusion in the ranks of Porus.
By a few vigorous charges the Indians were completely routed,
with the loss of 12,000 slain and 9000 prisoners.  Among the
latter was Porus himself, who was conducted into the presence of
Alexander.  The courage which he had displayed in the battle had
excited the admiration of the Macedonian king.  Mounted on an
enormous elephant, he retreated leisurely when the day was lost,
and long rejected every summons to surrender; till at length,
overcome by thirst and fatigue, he permitted himself to be taken.
Even in this situation Porus still retained his majestic bearing,
the effect of which was increased by the extraordinary height of
his stature.  On Alexander's inquiring how he wished to be
treated, he replied, "Like a king."   "And have you no other
request?"  asked Alexander.  "No," answered Porus; "everything is
comprehended in the word king."  Struck by his magnanimity,
Alexander not only restored him to his dominions, but also
considerably enlarged them; seeking by these means to retain him
as an obedient and faithful vassal.

Alexander rested a month on the banks of the Hydaspes, where he
celebrated his victory by games and sacrifices, and founded two
towns one of which he named Nicaea, and the other Bucephala, in
honour of his gallant charger Bucephalus, which is said to have
died there.  He then overran the whole of the PENJ-AB, as far as
the Hyphasis (GHARRA), its southern boundary.  Upon reaching this
river, the army, worn out by fatigues and dangers, positively
refused to proceed any farther; although Alexander passionately
desired to attack a monarch still more powerful than Porus, whose
dominions lay beyond the Hyphasis.  All his attempts to induce
his soldiers to proceed proving ineffectual, he returned to the
Hydaspes, when he ordered part of his army to descend the river
on its opposite banks; whilst he himself at the head of 8000 men,
embarked on board a fleet of about 2000 vessels, which he had
ordered to he prepared with the view of sailing down the Indus to
its mouth.

The army began to move in November 327.  The navigation lasted
several months, but was accomplished without any serious
opposition, except from the tribe of the Malli, who are
conjectured to have occupied the site of the present MOOLTAN.  At
the storming of their town the life of Alexander was exposed to
imminent danger.  He was the first to scale the walls of the
citadel, and was followed by four officers; but before a fifth
man could mount, the ladder broke, and Alexander was left exposed
on the wall to the missiles of the enemy.  Leaping down into the
citadel among the enemy, he placed his back to the wall, where he
succeeded in keeping the enemy at bay, and slew two of their
chiefs who had ventured within reach of his sword.  But an arrow
which pierced his corslet brought him to the ground, fainting
with loss of blood.  Two of his followers, who had jumped down
after him, now stood over and defended him; till at length, more
soldiers having scaled the walls and opened one of the gates,
sufficient numbers poured in not only to rescue their monarch,
but to capture the citadel; when every living being within the
place was put to the sword.  Upon arriving at the mouth of the
Indus, Nearchus with the fleet was directed to explore the Indian
Ocean, the Persian Gulf, and the mouths of the Tigris and
Euphrates, with the view of establishing a maritime communication
between India and Persia.  Alexander himself proceeded with his
army, in the autumn of 326, through the burning deserts of
Gedrosia towards Persepolis; marching himself on foot, and
sharing the privations and fatigues of the meanest soldier.  In
these regions the very atmosphere seems to be composed of a fine
dust which, on the slightest wind, penetrates into the mouth and
nose, whilst the soil affords no firm footing to the traveller.
The march through this inhospitable region lasted 60 days, during
which numbers of the soldiers perished from fatigue or disease.
At length they emerged into the fertile province of Carmania.
Whilst in this country Alexander was rejoined by Nearchus, who
had arrived with his fleet at Harmozia (ORMUZ); but who
subsequently prosecuted his voyage to the head of the Persian

Upon reaching Susa (B.C. 325) Alexander allowed his soldiers to
repose from their fatigues, and amused them with a series of
brilliant festivities.  It was here that he adopted various
measures with the view of consolidating his empire.  One of the
most important was to form the Greeks and Persians into one
people by means of intermarriages.  He himself celebrated his
nuptials with Statira the eldest daughter of Darius, and bestowed
the hand of her sister, Drypetis, on Hephaestion.  Other
marriages were made between Alexander's officers and Asiatic
women, to the number, it is said, of about a hundred; whilst no
fewer than 10,000 of the common soldiers followed their example
and took native wives.  As another means of amalgamating the
Europeans and Asiatics, he caused numbers of the latter to be
admitted into the army, and to be armed and trained in the
Macedonian fashion.  But these innovations were regarded with a
jealous eye by most of the Macedonian veterans; and this feeling
was increased by the conduct of Alexander himself, who assumed
every day more and more of the state and manners of an eastern
despot.  Their long-stifled dissatisfaction broke out into open
mutiny and rebellion at a review which took place at Opis on the
Tigris.  But the mutiny was quelled by the decisive conduct of
Alexander.  He immediately ordered thirteen of the ringleaders to
be seized and executed, and then, addressing the remainder,
pointed out to them how, by his own and his father's exertions,
they had been raised from the condition of scattered herdsmen to
be the masters of Greece and the lords of Asia; and that, whilst
he had abandoned to them the richest and most valuable fruits of
his conquest, he had reserved nothing but the diadem for himself,
as the mark of his superior labours and more imminent perils.  He
then secluded himself for two whole days, during which his
Macedonian guard was exchanged for a Persian one, whilst nobles
of the same nation were appointed to the most confidential posts
about his person.  Overcome by these marks of alienation on the
part of their sovereign, the Macedonians now supplicated with
tears to be restored to favour.  A solemn reconciliation was
effected, and 10,000 veterans were dismissed to their homes under
the conduct of Craterus.  That general was also appointed to the
government of Macedonia in place of Antipater, who was ordered to
repair to Asia with fresh reinforcements.

Soon after these occurrences Alexander proceeded to Ecbatana,
where during the autumn he solemnised the festival of Dionysus
with extraordinary splendour.  But his enjoyment was suddenly
converted into bitterness by the death of his friend Hephaestion,
who was carried off by a fever.  This event threw Alexander into
a deep melancholy, from which he never entirely recovered.  The
memory of Hephaestion was honoured by extravagant marks of public
mourning, and his body was conveyed to Babylon, to be there
interred with the utmost magnificence.

Alexander entered Babylon in the spring of 324, notwithstanding
the warnings of the priests of Belus, who predicted some serious
evil to him if he entered the city at that time.  Babylon was now
to witness the consummation of his triumphs and of his life.
Ambassadors from all parts of Greece, from Libya, Italy, and
probably from still more distant regions, were waiting to salute
him, and to do homage to him as the conqueror of Asia; the fleet
under Nearchus had arrived after its long and enterprising
voyage; whilst for the reception of this navy, which seemed to
turn the inland capital of his empire into a port, a magnificent
harbour was in process of construction.  The mind of Alexander
was still occupied with plans of conquest and ambition; his next
design was the subjugation of Arabia; which, however, was to be
only the stepping-stone to the conquest of the whole known world.
He despatched three expeditions to survey the coast of Arabia;
ordered a fleet to be built to explore the Caspian sea; and
engaged himself in surveying the course of the Euphrates, and in
devising improvements of its navigation.  The period for
commencing the Arabian campaign had already arrived; solemn
sacrifices were offered up for its success, and grand banquets
were given previous to departure.  At these carousals Alexander
drank deep; and at the termination of the one given by his
favourite, Medius, he was seized with unequivocal symptoms of
fever.  For some days, however, he neglected the disorder, and
continued to occupy himself with the necessary preparations for
the march.  But in eleven days the malady had gained a fatal
strength, and terminated his life on the 28th of June, B.C. 323,
at the early age of 32.  Whilst he lay speechless on his deathbed
his favourite troops were admitted to see him; but he could offer
them no other token of recognition than by stretching out his

Few of the great characters of history have been so differently
judged as Alexander.  Of the magnitude of his exploits, indeed,
and of the justice with which, according to the usual sentiments
of mankind, they confer upon him the title of "Great," there can
be but one opinion.  His military renown, however, consists more
in the seemingly extravagant boldness of his enterprises than in
the real power of the foes whom he overcame.  The resistance he
met with was not greater than that which a European army
experiences in the present day from one composed of Asiatics; and
the empire of the East was decided by the two battles of Issus
and Arbela.  His chief difficulties were the geographical
difficulties of distance, climate, and the nature of the ground
traversed.  But this is no proof that he was incompetent to meet
a foe more worthy of his military skill; and his proceedings in
Greece before his departure show the reverse.  His motive, it
must be allowed, seem rather to have sprung from the love of
personal glory and the excitement of conquest, than from any wish
to benefit his subjects.  Yet on the whole his achievements,
though they undoubtedly occasioned great partial misery, must be
regarded as beneficial to the human race.  By his conquests the
two continents were put into closer communication with one
another; and both, but particularly Asia, were the gainers.  The
language, the arts, and the literature of Greece were introduced
into the East; and after the death of Alexander, Greek kingdoms
were formed in the western parts of Asia, which continued to
exist for many generations.


BY THE ROMANS, B.C. 323-146.

The vast empire of Alexander the Great was divided, at his death,
among his generals; but, before relating their history, it is
necessary to take a brief retrospective glance at the affairs of
Greece.  Three years after Alexander had quitted Europe the
Spartans made a vigorous effort to throw off the Macedonian yoke.
They were joined by most of the Peloponnesian states; but though
they met with some success at first, they were finally defeated
with great slaughter by Antipater near Megalopolis.  Agis fell in
the battle, and the chains of Greece were riveted more firmly
than ever.  This victory, and the successes of Alexander in the
East, encouraged the Macedonian party in Athens to take active
measures against Demosthenes; and AEschines revived an old charge
against him which had lain dormant for several years.  Soon after
the battle of Chaeronea, Ctesiphon had proposed that Demosthenes
should be presented with a golden crown in the theatre during the
great Dionysiac festival, on account of the services he had
conferred upon his country.  For proposing this decree AEschines
indicted Ctesiphon; but though the latter was the nominal
defendant, it was Demosthenes who was really put upon his trial.
The case was decided in 330 B.C., and has been immortalised by
the memorable and still extant speeches of AEschines 'Against
Ctesiphon' and of Demosthenes 'On the Crown.' AEschines, who did
not obtain a fifth part of the votes, and consequently became
himself liable to a penalty, was so chagrined at his defeat that
he retired to Rhodes.

In B.C. 325 Harpalus arrived in Athens.  He had been left by
Alexander at Ecbatana in charge of the royal treasures, and
appears also to have held the important satrapy of Babylon.
During the absence of Alexander in India he gave himself up to
the most extravagant luxury and profusion, squandering the
treasures intrusted to him, at the same time that he alienated
the people subject to his rule by his lustful excesses and
extortions.  He had probably thought that Alexander would never
return from the remote regions of the East into which he had
penetrated; but when he at length learnt that the king was on his
march back to Susa, and had visited with unsparing rigour those
of his officers who had been guilty of any excesses during his
absence, he at once saw that his only resource was in flight.
Collecting together all the treasures which he could, and
assembling a body of 6000 mercenaries, he hastened to the coast
of Asia, and from thence crossed over to Attica, At first the
Athenians refused to receive him; but bribes administered to some
of the principal orators induced them to alter their
determination.  Such a step was tantamount to an act of hostility
against Macedonia itself; and accordingly Antipater called upon
the Athenians to deliver up Harpalus, and to bring to trial those
who had accepted his bribes.  The Athenians did not venture to
disobey these demands.  Harpalus was put into confinement, but
succeeded in making his escape from prison.  Demosthenes was
among the orators who were brought to trial for corruption.  He
was declared to be guilty, and was condemned to pay a fine of 50
talents.  Not being able to raise that sum, he was thrown into
prison; but he contrived to make his escape, and went into exile.
There are, however, good grounds for doubting his guilt; and it
is more probable that he fell a victim to the implacable hatred
of the Macedonian party.  Upon quitting Athens Demosthenes
resided chiefly at AEgina or Troezen, in sight of his native
land, and whenever he looked towards her shores it was observed
that he shed tears.

When the news of Alexander's death reached Athens, the anti-
Macedonian party, which, since the exile of Demosthenes, was led
by Hyperides, carried all before it.  The people in a decree
declared their determination to support the liberty of Greece.
Envoys were despatched to all the Grecian states to announce the
determination of Athens, and to exhort them to struggle with her
for their independence.  This call was responded to in the
Peloponnesus only by the smaller states, whilst Sparta, Arcadia,
and Achaia kept aloof.  In northern Greece the confederacy was
joined by most of the states except the Boaotians; and Leosthenes
was appointed commander-in-chief of the allied forces.

The allied army assembled in the neighbourhood of Thermopylae.
Antipater now advanced from the north, and offered battle in the
vale of the Spercheus; but being deserted by his Thessalian
cavalry, who went over to his opponents during the heat of the
engagement, he was obliged to retreat and threw himself into
Lamia, a strong fortress on the Malian gulf.  Leosthenes,
desirous to finish the war at a blow, pressed the siege with the
utmost vigour; but his assaults were repulsed, and he was
compelled to resort to the slower method of a blockade.  From
this town the contest between Antipater and the allied Greeks has
been called the Lamian War.

The novelty of a victory over the Macedonian arms was received
with boundless exultation at Athens, and this feeling was raised
to a still higher pitch by the arrival of an embassy from
Antipater to sue for peace.  But the Athenians were so elated
with their good fortune, that they would listen to no terms but
the unconditional surrender of Antipater.  Meantime Demosthenes,
though still an exile, exerted himself in various parts of the
Peloponnesus in counteracting the envoys of Antipater, and in
endeavouring to gain adherents to the cause of Athens and the
allies.  The Athenians in return invited Demosthenes back to his
native country, and a ship was sent to convey him to Piraeus,
where he was received with extraordinary honours.

Meanwhile Leonnatus, governor of the Hellespontine Phrygia, had
appeared on the theatre of war with an army of 20,000 foot and
2500 horse.  Leosthenes had been slain at Lamia in a sally of the
besieged; and Antiphilus, on whom the command of the allied army
devolved, hastened to offer battle to Leonnatus before he could
arrive at Lamia.  The hostile armies met in one of the plains of
Thessaly, where Leonnatus was killed and his troops defeated.
Antipater, as soon as the blockade of Lamia was raised, had
pursued Antiphilus, and on the day after the battle he effected a
junction with the beaten army of Leonnatus.

Shortly afterwards Antipater was still further reinforced by the
arrival of Craterus with a considerable force from Asia; and
being now at the head of an army which outnumbered the forces of
the allies, he marched against them and gained a decisive victory
over them near Crannon in Thessaly, on the 7th of August, B.C.
322.  The allies were now compelled to sue for peace; but
Antipater refused to treat with them except as separate states,
foreseeing that by this means many would be detached from the
confederacy.  The result answered his expectations.  One by one
the various states submitted, till at length all had laid down
their arms.  Athens, the original instigator of the insurrection,
now lay at the mercy of the conqueror.  As Antipater advanced,
Phocion used all the influence which he possessed with the
Macedonians in favour of his countrymen; but he could obtain no
other terms than an unconditional surrender.  On a second mission
Phocion received the final demands of Antipater; which were, that
the Athenians should deliver up a certain number of their
orators, among whom were Demosthenes and Hyperides; that their
political franchise should be limited by a property
qualification; that they should receive a Macedonian garrison in
Munychia; and that they should defray the expenses of the war.
Such was the result of the Lamian war, which riveted the
Macedonian fetters more firmly than ever.

After the return of the envoys bringing the ultimatum of
Antipater, the sycophant Demades procured a decree for the death
of the denounced orators.  Demosthenes, and the other persons
compromised, made their escape from Athens before the Macedonian
garrison arrived.  AEgina was their first place of refuge, but
they soon parted in different directions.  Hyperides fled to the
temple of Demeter (Ceres) at Hermione in Peloponnesus, whilst
Demosthenes took refuge in that of Poseidon (Neptune) in the isle
of Calaurea, near Troezen.  But the satellites of Antipater,
under the guidance of a Thurian named Archias who had formerly
been an actor, tore them from their sanctuaries.  Hyperides was
carried to Athens, and it is said that Antipater took the brutal
and cowardly revenge of ordering his tongue to be cut out, and
his remains to be thrown to the dogs.  Demosthenes contrived at
least to escape the insults of the tyrannical conqueror.  Archias
at first endeavoured to entice him from his sanctuary by the
blandest promises, But Demosthenes, forewarned, it is said, by a
dream, fixing his eyes intently on him, exclaimed, "Your acting,
Archias, never touched me formerly, nor do your promises now."
And when Archias began to employ threats, "Good," said
Demosthenes; "now you speak as from the Macedonian tripod; before
you were only playing a part.  But wait awhile, and let me write
my last directions to my family."  So taking his writing
materials, he put the reed into his mouth, and bit it for some
time, as was his custom when composing; after which he covered
his head with his garment and reclined against a pillar.  The
guards who accompanied Archias, imagining this to be a mere
trick, laughed and called him coward, whilst Archias began to
renew his false persuasions.  Demosthenes, feeling the poison
work--for such it was that he had concealed in the reed now bade
him lead on.  "You may now," said he, "enact the part of Creon,
and cast me out unburied; but at least, O gracious Poseidon, I
have not polluted thy temple by my death which Antipater and his
Macedonians would not have scrupled at."  But whilst he was
endeavouring to walk out, he fell down by the altar and expired.

The history of Alexander's successors is marked from first to
last by dissension, crimes, and unscrupulous ambition.  It is
only necessary for the purpose of the present work to mention
very briefly the most important events.

Alexander on his death-bed is said to have given his signet-ring
to Perdiccas, but he had left no legitimate heir to his throne,
though his wife Roxana was pregnant.  On the day after
Alexander's death a military council was assembled, in which
Perdiccas assumed a leading part; and in which, after much
debate, an arrangement was at length effected on the following
basis:  That Philip Arrhidaeus, a young man of weak intellect,
the half-brother of Alexander (being the son of Philip by a
Thessalian woman named Philinna), should be declared king,
reserving however to the child of Roxana if a son should be born,
a share in the sovereignty:  that the government of Macedonia and
Greece should be divided between Antipater and Craterus:  that
Ptolemy should preside over Egypt and the adjacent countries:
that Antigonus should have Phrygia Proper, Lycia, and Pamphylia:
that the Hellespontine Phrygia should be assigned to Leonnatus:
that Eumenes should have the satrapy of Paphlagonia and
Cappadocia, which countries, however, still remained to be
subdued:  and that Thrace should be committed to Lysimachus.
Perdiccas reserved for himself the command of the horse-guards,
the post before held by Hephaestion, in virtue of which he became
the guardian of Philip Arrhidaeus, the nominal sovereign.  It was
not for some time after these arrangements had been completed
that the last rites were paid to Alexander's remains.  They were
conveyed to Alexandria, and deposited in a cemetery which
afterwards became the burial-place of the Ptolemies.  Nothing
could exceed the magnificence of the funeral car, which was
adorned with ornaments of massive gold, and was so heavy, that it
was more than a year in being conveyed from Babylon to Syria,
though drawn by 84 mules.  In due time Roxana was delivered of a
son, to whom the name of Alexander was given, and who was
declared the partner of Arrhidaeus in the empire.  Roxana had
previously inveigled Statira and her sister Drypetis to Babylon,
where she caused them to be secretly assassinated.

Perdiccas possessed more power than any of Alexander's generals,
and he now aspired to the Macedonian throne.  His designs,
however, were not unknown to Antigonus and Ptolemy ; and when he
attempted to bring Antigonus to trial for some offence in the
government of his satrapy, that general made his escape to
Macedonia, where he revealed to Antipater the full extent of the
ambitious schemes of Perdiccas, and thus at once induced
Antipater and Craterus to unite in a league with him and Ptolemy,
and openly declare war against the regent.  Thus assailed on all
sides, Perdiccas resolved to direct his arms in the first
instance against Ptolemy.  In the spring of B.C. 321 he
accordingly set out on his march against Egypt, at the head of a
formidable army, and accompanied by Philip Arrhidaeus, and Roxana
and her infant son.  He advanced without opposition as far as
Pelusium, but he found the banks of the Nile strongly fortified
and guarded by Ptolemy, and was repulsed in repeated attempts to
force the passage of the river; in the last of which, near
Memphis, he lost great numbers of men by the depth and rapidity
of the current.  Perdiccas had never been popular with the
soldiery, and these disasters completely alienated their
affections.  A conspiracy was formed against him, and some of his
chief officers murdered him in his tent.

The death of Perdiccas was followed by a fresh distribution of
the provinces of the empire.  At a meeting of the generals held
at Triparadisus in Syria, towards the end of the year 321 B.C.,
Antipater was declared regent, retaining the government of
Macedonia and Greece; Ptolemy was continued in the government of
Egypt; Seleucus received the satrapy of Babylon; whilst Antigonus
not only retained his old province, but was rewarded with that of

Antipater did not long survive these events.  He died in the year
318, at the advanced age of 80, leaving Polysperchon, one of
Alexander's oldest generals, regent; much to the surprise and
mortification of his son Cassander, who received only the
secondary dignity of Chiliarch, or commander of the cavalry.
Cassander was now bent on obtaining the regency; but seeing no
hope of success in Macedonia, he went over to Asia to solicit the
assistance of Antigonus.

Polysperchon, on his side, sought to conciliate the friendship of
the Grecian states, by proclaiming them all free and independent,
and by abolishing the oligarchies which had been set up by
Antipater.  In order to enforce these measures, Polysperchon
prepared to march into Greece, whilst his son Alexander was
despatched beforehand with an army towards Athens to compel the
Macedonian garrison under the command of Nicanor to evacuate
Munychia.  Nicanor, however, refused to move without orders from
Cassander, whose general he declared himself to be.  Phocion was
suspected of intriguing in favour of Nicanor, and being accused
of treason, fled to Alexander, now encamped before the walls of
Athens.  Alexander sent Phocion to his father, who sent him back
to Athens in chains, to be tried by the Athenian people.  The
theatre, where his trial was to take place, was soon full to
overflowing.  Phocion was assailed on every side by the clamours
of his enemies, which prevented his defence; from being heard,
and he was condemned to death by a show of hands.  To the last
Phocion maintained his calm and dignified, but somewhat
contemptuous bearing.  When some wretched man spat upon him as he
passed to the prison, "Will no one," said he, "check this
fellow's indecency?"  To one who asked him whether he had any
message to leave for his son Phocus, he answered, "Only that he
bear no grudge against the Athenians."  And when the hemlock
which had been prepared was found insufficient for all the
condemned, and the jailer would not furnish more unless he was
paid for it, "Give the man his money," said Phocion to one of his
friends, "since at Athens one cannot even die for nothing."  He
died in B.C. 317, at the age of 85.  The Athenians afterwards
repented of their conduct towards Phocion.  His bones, which had
been cast out on the frontiers of Megara, were brought back to
Athens, and a bronze statue was erected to his memory.

Whilst Alexander was negotiating with Nicanor about the surrender
of Munychia, Cassander arrived in the Piraeus with a considerable
army, with which Antigonus had supplied him.  Polysperchon was
obliged to retire from Athens, and Cassander established an
oligarchical government in the city under the presidency of
Demetrius of Phalerus.

Although Polysperchon was supported by Olympias, the mother of
Alexander the Great, he proved no match for Cassander, who became
master of Macedonia after the fall of Pydna in B.C. 316.  In this
city Olympias had taken refuge together with Roxana and her son;
but after a blockade of some months it was obliged to surrender.
Olympias had stipulated that her life should be spared, but
Cassander soon afterwards caused her to be murdered, and kept
Roxana and her son in custody in the citadel of Amphipolis.
Shortly afterwards Cassander began the restoration of Thebes
(B.C. 315), in the twentieth year after its destruction by
Alexander, a measure highly popular with the Greeks.

A new war now broke out in the East.  Antigonus had become the
most powerful of Alexander's successors.  He had conquered
Eumenes, who had long defied his arms, and he now began to
dispose of the provinces as he thought fit.  His increasing power
and ambitious projects led to a general coalition against him,
consisting of Ptolemy, Seleucus, Cassander, and Lysimachus, the
governor of Thrace.  The war began in the year 315, and was
carried on with great vehemence and alternate success in Syria,
Phoenicia, Asia Minor, and Greece.  After four years all parties
became exhausted with the struggle, and peace was accordingly
concluded in 311, on condition that the Greek cities should be
free, that Cassander should retain his authority in Europe till
Alexander came of age, that Ptolemy and Lysimachus should keep
possession of Egypt and Thrace respectively, and that Antigonus
should have the government of all Asia.  This hollow peace, which
had been merely patched up for the convenience of the parties
concerned, was not of long duration.  It seems to have been the
immediate cause of another of those crimes which disgrace the
history of Alexander's successors.  His son, Alexander, who had
now attained the age of sixteen, was still shut up with his
mother Roxana in Amphipolis; and his partisans, with injudicious
zeal, loudly expressed their wish that he should be released and
placed upon the throne.  In order to avert this event Cassander
contrived the secret murder both of the mother and the son.

This abominable act, however, does not appear to have caused a
breach of the peace.  Ptolemy was the first to break it (B.C.
310), under the pretext that Antigonus, by keeping his garrisons
in the Greek cities of Asia and the islands, had not respected
that article of the treaty which guaranteed Grecian freedom.
After the war had lasted three years Antigonus resolved to make a
vigorous effort to wrest Greece from the hands of Cassander and
Ptolemy, who held all the principal towns in it.  Accordingly, in
the summer of 307 B.C. he despatched his son Demetrius from
Ephesus to Athens, with a fleet of 250 sail, and 5000 talents in
money.  Demetrius, who afterwards obtained the surname of
"Poliorcetes," or "Besieger of Cities," was a young man of ardent
temperament and great abilities.  Upon arriving at the Piraeus he
immediately proclaimed the object of his expedition to be the
liberation of Athens and the expulsion of the Macedonian
garrison.  Supported by the Macedonians, Demetrius the Phalerean
had now ruled Athens for a period of more than ten years.  Of
mean birth, Demetrius the Phalerean owed his elevation entirely
to his talents and perseverance.  His skill as an orator raised
him to distinction among his countrymen; and his politics, which
led him to embrace the party of Phocion, recommended him to
Cassander and the Macedonians.  He cultivated many branches of
literature, and was at once an historian, a philosopher, and a
poet; but none of his works have come down to us.  The Athenians
heard with pleasure the proclamations of the son of Antigonus his
namesake, the Phalerean was obliged to surrender the city to him,
and to close his political career by retiring to Thebes.  The
Macedonian garrison in Munychia offered a slight resistance,
which was soon overcome, Demetrius Poliorcetes then formally
announced to the Athenian assembly the restoration of their
ancient constitution, and promised them a large donative of corn
and ship-timber.  This munificence was repaid by the Athenians
with the basest and most abject flattery.  Both Demetrius and his
father were deified, and two new tribes, those of Antigonias and
Demetrias, were added to the existing ten which derived their
names from the ancient heroes of Attica.

Demetrius Poliorcetes did not, however, remain long at Athens.
Early in 306 B.C. he was recalled by his father, and, sailing to
Cyprus, undertook the siege of Salamis.  Ptolemy hastened to its
relief with 140 vessels and 10,000 troops.  The battle that
ensued was one of the most memorable in the annals of ancient
naval warfare, more particularly on account of the vast size of
the vessels engaged.  Ptolemy was completely defeated; and so
important was the victory deemed by Antigonus, that on the
strength of it he assumed the title of king, which he also
conferred upon his son.  This example was followed by Ptolemy,
Seleucus, and Lysimachus.

Demetrius now undertook an expedition against Rhodes, which had
refused its aid in the attack upon Ptolemy.  It was from the
memorable siege of Rhodes that Demetrius obtained his name of
"Poliorcetes."  After in vain attempting to take the town from
the sea-side, by means of floating batteries, from which stones
of enormous weight were hurled from engines with incredible force
against the walls, he determined to alter his plan and invest it
on the land-side.  With the assistance of Epimachus, an Athenian
engineer, he constructed a machine which, in anticipation of its
effect, was called Helepolis, or "the city-taker."  This was a
square wooden tower, 150 feet high, and divided into nine
stories, filled with armed men, who discharged missiles through
apertures in the sides.  When armed and prepared for attack, it
required the strength of 2300 men to set this enormous machine in
motion.  But though it was assisted by the operation of two
battering-rams, each 150 feet long and propelled by the labour of
1000 men, the Rhodians were so active in repairing the breaches
made in their walls, that, after a year spent in the vain attempt
to take the town, Demetrius was forced to retire and grant the
Rhodians peace.

In 301 B.C, the struggle between Antigonus and his rivals was
brought to a close by the battle of Ipsus in Phrygia, in which
Antigonus was killed, and his army completely defeated.  He had
attained the age of 81 at the time of his death.  A third
partition of the empire of Alexander was now made.  Seleucus and
Lysimachus shared between them the possessions of Antigonus.
Lysimachus seems to have had the greater part of Asia Minor,
whilst the whole country from the coast of Syria to the
Euphrates, as well as a part of Phrygia and Cappadocia, fell to
the share of Seleucus.  The latter founded on the Orontes a new
capital of his empire, which he named Antioch, after his father
Antiochus, and which long continued to be one of the most
important Greek cities in Asia.  The fall of Antigonus secured
Cassander in the possession of Greece.

Demetrius was now a fugitive, but in the following year he was
agreeably surprised by receiving an embassy from Seleucus, by
which that monarch solicited his daughter Stratonice in marriage.
Demetrius gladly granted the request, and found himself so much
strengthened by this alliance, that in the spring of the year 296
he was in a condition to attack Athens, which he captured after a
long siege, and drove out the bloodthirsty tyrant Lachares, who
had been established there by Cassander.

Meanwhile Cassander had died shortly before the siege of Athens,
and was succeeded on the throne of Macedon by his eldest son,
Philip IV.  [Philip Arrhidaeus is called Philip III.] But that
young prince died in 295, and the succession was disputed between
his two brothers, Antipater and Alexander.  Demetrius availed
himself of the distracted state of Macedonia to make himself
master of that country (B.C. 294).  He reigned over Macedonia,
and the greater part of Greece, about seven years.  He aimed at
recovering the whole of his father's dominions in Asia; but
before he was ready to take the field, his adversaries, alarmed
at his preparations, determined to forestall him.  In the spring
of B.C. 287 Ptolemy sent a powerful fleet against Greece, while
Pyrrhus on the one side and Lysimachus on the other
simultaneously invaded Macedonia.  Demetrius had completely
alienated his own subjects by his proud and haughty bearing, and
by his lavish expenditure on his own luxuries; while Pyrrhus by
his generosity, affability, and daring courage, had become the
hero of the Macedonians, who looked upon him as a second
Alexander.  The appearance of Pyrrhus was the signal for revolt:
the Macedonian troops flocked to his standard and Demetrius was
compelled to fly.  Pyrrhus now ascended the throne of Macedonia;
but his reign was of brief duration; and at the end of seven
months he was in turn driven out by Lysimachus.  Demetrius made
several attempts to regain his power in Greece, and then set sail
for Asia, where he successively endeavoured to establish himself
in the territories of Lysimachus, and of his son-in-law Seleucus.
Falling at length into the hands of the latter, he was kept in a
kind of magnificent captivity in a royal residence in Syria;
where, in 283, at the early age of 55, his chequered career was
brought to a close, partly by chagrin, and partly by the sensual
indulgences with which be endeavoured to divert it.

Lysimachus, Seleucus, and Ptolemy now divided the empire of
Alexander between them.  In Egypt the aged Ptolemy had abdicated
in 285 in favour of his son by Berenice afterwards known as
Ptolemy Philadelphus, and to the exclusion of his eldest son,
Ptolemy Ceraunus, by his wife Eurydice.  Ptolemy Ceraunus quitted
Egypt in disgust, and fled to the court of Lysimachus; and
Arsinoe, the wife of Lysimachus, jealous of her stepson
Agathocles, the heir apparent to the throne, and desirous of
securing the succession for her own children, conspired with
Ptolemy Ceraunus against the life of Agathocles.  She even
procured the consent of Lysimachus to his murder; and after some
vain attempts to make away with him by poison, he was flung into
prison, where Ptolemy Ceraunus despatched him with his own hand.
Lysandra, the mother of Agathocles, fled with the rest of her
family to Seleucus, to demand from him protection and vengeance;
and Seleucus, induced by the hopes of success, inspired by the
discontent and dissensions which so foul an act had excited among
the subjects of Lysimachus, espoused her cause.  The hostilities
which ensued between him and Lysimachus were brought to a
termination by the battle of Corupedion, fought near Sardis in
281, in which Lysimachus was defeated and slain.  By this
victory, Macedonia, and the whole of Alexander's empire, with the
exception of Egypt, southern Syria, Cyprus, and part of
Phoenicia, fell under the sceptre of Seleucus.

That monarch, who had not beheld his native land since he first
joined the expedition of Alexander, now crossed the Hellespont to
take possession of Macedonia.  Ptolemy Ceraunus, who after the
battle of Corupedion had thrown himself on the mercy of Seleucus,
and had been received with forgiveness and favour, accompanied
him on this journey.  The murder of Agathocles had not been
committed by Ptolemy merely to oblige Arsinoe.  He had even then
designs upon the supreme power, which he now completed by another
crime.  As Seleucus stopped to sacrifice at a celebrated altar
near Lysimachia in Thrace, Ptolemy treacherously assassinated him
by stabbing him in the back (280).  After this base and cowardly
act, Ptolemy Ceraunus, who gave himself out as the avenger of
Lysimachus, was, by one of those movements wholly inexplicable to
our modern notions, saluted king by the army; but the Asiatic
dominions of Seleucus fell to his son Antiochus, surnamed Soter.
The crime of Ptolemy.  however, was speedily overtaken by a just
punishment.  In the very same year his kingdom of Macedonia and
Thrace was invaded by an immense host of Celts, and Ptolemy fell
at the head of the forces which he led against them.  A second
invasion of the same barbarians compelled the Greeks to raise a
force for their defence, which was intrusted to the command of
the Athenian Callippus (B.C. 279).  On this occasion the Celts
attracted by the report of treasures which were now perhaps
little more than an empty name, penetrated as far southwards as
Delphi, with the view of plundering the temple.  The god, it is
said, vindicated his sanctuary on this occasion in the same
supernatural manner as when it was attacked by the Persians:  it
is at all events certain that the Celts were repulsed with great
loss, including that of their leader Brennus.  Nevertheless some
of their tribes succeeded in establishing themselves near the
Danube; others settled on the sea-coast of Thrace whilst a third
portion passed over into Asia, and gave their name to the country
called Galatia.

After the death of Ptolemy Ceraunus, Macedonia fell for some time
into a state of anarchy and confusion, and the crown was
disputed by several pretenders.  At length, in 278, Antigonus
Gonatas, son of Demetrius Poliorcetes, succeeded in establishing
himself on the throne of Macedonia; and, with the exception of
two or three years (274-272) during which he was temporarily
expelled by Pyrrhus, he continued to retain possession of it till
his death in 239.  The struggle between Antigonus and Pyrrhus was
brought to a close at Argos in 272.  Pyrrhus had marched into the
Peloponnesus with a large force in order to make war upon Sparta,
but with the collateral design of reducing the places which still
held out for Antigonus.  Pyrrhus having failed in an attempt to
take Sparta, marched against Argos, where Antigonus also arrived
with his forces.  Both armies entered the city by opposite gates;
and in a battle which ensued in the streets Pyrrhus was struck
from his horse by a tile hurled by a woman from a house-top, and
was then despatched by some soldiers of Antigonus.  Such was the
inglorious end of one of the bravest and most warlike monarchs of
antiquity; whose character for moral virtue, though it would not
stand the test of modern scrutiny, shone out conspicuously in
comparison with that of contemporary sovereigns.

Antigonus Gonatas now made himself master of the greater part of
Peloponnesus, which he governed by means of tyrants whom he
established in various cities.

While all Greece, with the exception of Sparta, seemed hopelessly
prostrate at the feet of Macedonia, a new political power, which
sheds a lustre on the declining period of Grecian history, arose
in a small province in Peloponnesus, of which the very name has
been hitherto rarely mentioned since the heroic age.  In Achaia,
a narrow slip of country upon the shores of the Corinthian gulf,
a league, chiefly for religious purposes, had existed from a very
early period among the twelve chief cities of the province.  The
league, however, had never possessed much political importance,
and it had been suppressed by the Macedonians.  At the time of
which we are speaking Antigonus Gonatas was in possession of all
the cities formerly belonging to the league, either by means of
his garrisons or of the tyrants who were subservient to him.  It
was, however, this very oppression that led to a revival of the
league.  The Achaean towns, now only ten in number, as two had
been destroyed by earthquakes, began gradually to coalesce again;
but Aratus of Sicyon, one of the most remarkable characters of
this period of Grecian history, was the man who, about the year
251 B.C., first called the new league into active political
existence.  He had long lived in exile at Argos, whilst his
native city groaned under the dominion of a succession of
tyrants.  Having collected a band of exiles, he surprised Sicyon
in the night time, and drove out the last and most unpopular of
these tyrants.  Instead of seizing the tyranny for himself, as he
might easily have done, Aratus consulted only the advantage of
his country, and with this view united Sicyon with the Achaean
league.  The accession of so important a town does not appear to
have altered the constitution of the confederacy.  The league was
governed by a STRATEGUS, or general, whose functions were both
military and civil; a GRAMMATEUS, or secretary; and a council of
ten DEMIURGI.  The sovereignty, however, resided in the general
assembly, which met twice a year in a sacred grove near AEgium.
It was composed of every Achaean who had attained the age of
thirty, and possessed the right of electing the officers of the
league, and of deciding all questions of war, peace, foreign
alliances, and the like.  In the year 245 B.C. Aratus was elected
STRATEGUS of the league, and again in 243.  In the latter of
these years he succeeded in wresting Corinth from the Macedonians
by another nocturnal surprise, and uniting it to the league.  The
confederacy now spread with wonderful rapidity.  It was soon
joined by Troezen, Epidaurus, Hermione and other cities; and
ultimately embraced Athens, Megara, AEgina, Salamis, and the
whole Peloponnesus, with the exception of Sparta, Elis, and some
of the Arcadian towns.

Sparta, it is true, still continued to retain her independence,
but without a shadow of her former greatness and power.  The
primitive simplicity of Spartan manners had been completely
destroyed by the collection of wealth into a few hands, and by
the consequent progress of luxury.  The number of Spartan
citizens had been reduced to 700; but even of these there were
not above a hundred who possessed a sufficient quantity of land
to maintain themselves in independence.  The young king, Agis
IV., who succeeded to the crown in 244, attempted to revive the
ancient Spartan virtue, by restoring the institutions of
Lycurgus, by cancelling all debts, and by making a new
distribution of lands; and with this view he relinquished all his
own property, as well as that of his family, for the public good.
But Agis perished in this attempt, and was put to death as a
traitor to his order.  A few years afterwards, however,
Cleomenes, the son of Leonidas, succeeded in effecting the
reforms which had been contemplated by Agis, as well as several
others which regarded military discipline.  The effect of these
new measures soon became visible in the increased success of the
Spartan arms.  Aratus was so hard pressed that he was compelled
to solicit the assistance of the Macedonians.  Both Antigonus
Gonatas and his son Demetrius II.--who had reigned in Macedonia
from 239 to 229 B.C. were now dead, and the government was
administered by Antigonus Doson, as guardian of Philip, the
youthful son of Demetrius II.  Antigonus Doson was the grandson
of Demetrius Poliorcetes, and the nephew of Antigonus Gonatas.
The Macedonians compelled him to accept the crown; but he
remained faithful to his trust as guardian of Philip, whose
mother he married; and though he had children of his own by her,
yet Philip succeeded him on his death.  It was to Antigonus Doson
that Aratus applied for assistance; and though Cleomenes
maintained his ground for some time, he was finally defeated by
Antigonus Doson in the fatal battle of Sellasia in Laconia (B.C.
221).  The army of Cleomenes was almost totally annihilated; he
himself was obliged to fly to Egypt; and Sparta, which for many
centuries bad remained unconquered, fell into the hands of the

The succession of Macedonian kings from Alexander the Great to
the extinction of the monarchy will be seen from the following

Philip III. Arrhidaeus      . .   . .   . .   . .    323-316
Cassander                   . .   . .   . .   . .    316-296
Philip IV.                  . .   . .   . .   . .    296-295
Demetrius I. Poliorcetes    . .   . .   . .   . .    294-287
Pyrrhus                     . .   . .   . .   . .    287-286
Lysimachus                  . .   . .   . .   . .    286-280
Ptolemy Ceraunus and others . .   . .   . .   . .    280-277
Antigonus Gonatas           . .   . .   . .   . .    277-239
Demetrius II                . .   . .   . .   . .    239-229
Antigonus Doson             . .   . .   . .   . .    229-220
Philip V                    . .   . .   . .   . .    220-178
Perseus                     . .   . .   . .   . .    178-167

In the following gear Antigonus was succeeded by Philip V., the
son of Demetrius II., who was then about sixteen or seventeen
years of age.  His youth encouraged the AEtolians to make
predatory incursions into the Peloponnesus.  That people were a
species of freebooters, and the terror of their neighbours; yet
they were united, like the Achaeans, in a confederacy or league.
The Aetolian League was a confederation of tribes instead of
cities, like the Achaean.  The diet or council of the league,
called the Panaetolicum, assembled every autumn, generally at
Thermon, to elect the strategus and other officers; but the
details of its affairs were conducted by a committee called
APOCLETI, who seem to have formed a sort of permanent council,
The AEtolians had availed themselves of the disorganised state of
Greece consequent upon the death of Alexander to extend their
power, and had gradually made themselves masters of Locris,
Phocis, Boeotia, together with portions of Acarnania, Thessaly,
and Epirus.  Thus both the Amphictyonic Council and the oracle of
Delphi were in their power.  They had early wrested Naupactus
from the Achaeans, and had subsequently acquired several
Peloponnesian cities.

Such was the condition of the AEtolians at the time of Philip's
accession.  Soon after that event we find them, under the
leadership of Dorimachus, engaged in a series of freebooting
expeditions in Messenia, and other parts of Peloponnesus.  Aratus
marched to the assistance of the Messenians at the head of the
Achaean forces, but was totally defeated in a battle near
Caphyae.  The Achaeans now saw no hope of safety except through
the assistance of Philip.  That young monarch was ambitious and
enterprising possessing considerable military ability and much
political sagacity.  He readily listened to the application of
the Achaeans, and in 220 entered into an alliance with them.  The
war which ensued between the AEtolians on the one side, and the
Achaeans, assisted by Philip, on the other, and which lasted
about three years, has been called the Social War.  Philip gained
several victories over the AEtolians, but he concluded a treaty
of peace with them in 217, because he was anxious to turn his
arms against another and more formidable power.

The great struggle now going on between Rome and Carthage
attracted the attention of the whole civilized world.  If was
evident that Greece, distracted by intestine quarrels, must be
soon swallowed up by whichever of those great states might prove
successful; and of the two, the ambition of the Romans, who had
already gained a footing on the eastern shores of the Adriatic
was by far the more formidable to Greece.  After the conclusion
of the peace with the AEtolians Philip prepared a large fleet,
which he employed to watch the movements of the Romans, and in
the following year (216) he concluded a treaty with Hannibal,
which, among other clauses, provided that the Romans should not
be allowed to retain their conquests on the eastern side of the
Adriatic.  He even meditated an invasion of Italy, and with that
view endeavoured to make himself master of Apollonia and Oricum.
But though he succeeded in taking the latter city, the Romans
surprised his camp whilst he was besieging Apollonia, and
compelled him to burn his ships and retire.  Meanwhile Philip had
acted in a most arbitrary manner in the affairs of Greece; and
when Aratus remonstrated with him respecting his proceedings, he
got rid of his former friend and counsellor by means of a slow
and secret poison (B.C. 213).

In B.C., 209 the Achaeans, being hard pressed by the AEtolians,
were again induced to call in the aid of Philip.  The spirit of
the Achaeans was at this time revived by Philopoemen, one of the
few noble characters of the period, and who has been styled by
Plutarch "the last of the Greeks."  He was a native of
Megalopolis in Arcadia, and in 208 was elected Strategus of the
league.  In both these posts Philopoemen made great alterations
and improvements in the arms and discipline of the Achaean
forces, which he assimilated to those of the Macedonian phalanx.
These reforms, as well as the public spirit with which he had
inspired the Achaeans were attended with the most beneficial
results.  In 207 Philopoemen gained at Mantinea a signal victory
over the Lacedaemonians, who had joined the Roman alliance; 4000
of them were left upon the field, and among them Machanidas who
had made himself tyrant of Sparta.  This decisive battle,
combined with the withdrawal of the Romans, who, being desirous
of turning their undivided attention towards Carthage, had made
peace with Philip (205), secured for a few years the tranquillity
of Greece. It also raised the fame of Philopoemen to its highest
point; and in the next Nemean festival, being a second time
general of the league, he was hailed by the assembled Greeks as
the liberator of their country.

Upon the conclusion of the second Punic war the Romans renewed
their enterprises in Greece, and declared war against Philip
(B.C. 200).  For some time the war lingered on without any
decided success on either side; but in 198 the consul T.
Quinctius Flamininus succeeded in gaining over the Achaean league
to the Roman alliance; and as the AEtolians had previously
deserted Philip, both those powers fought for a short time on the
same side.  In 197 the struggle was brought to a termination by
the battle of Cynoscephalae, near Scotussa, in Thessaly, which
decided the fate of the Macedonian monarchy.  Philip was obliged
to sue for peace, and in the following year (196) a treaty was
ratified by which the Macedonians were compelled to renounce
their supremacy, to withdraw their garrisons from the Grecian
towns, to surrender their fleet, and to pay 1000 talents for the
expenses of the war.  At the ensuing Isthmian games Flamininus
solemnly proclaimed the freedom of the Greeks, and was received
by them with overwhelming joy and gratitude.

The AEtolians, dissatisfied with these arrangements, persuaded
Antiochus III., king of Syria, to enter into a league against the
Romans.  He passed over into Greece with a wholly inadequate
force, and was defeated by the Romans at Thermopylae (B.C. 191).
The AEtolians were now compelled to make head against the Romans
by themselves.  After some ineffectual attempts at resistance
they were reduced to sue for peace, which they at length
obtained, but on the most humiliating conditions (B.C. 189). They
were required to acknowledge the supremacy of Rome, to renounce
all the conquests they had recently made, to pay an indemnity of
500 talents and to engage in future to aid the Romans in their
wars.  The power of the AEtolian league was thus for ever
crushed, though it seems to have existed, in name at least, till
a much later period.

The Achaean league still subsisted but was destined before long
to experience the same fate as its rival.  At first, indeed, it
enjoyed the protection of the Romans, and even acquired an
extension of members through their influence, but this
protectorate involved a state of almost absolute dependence.
Philopoemen also had succeeded, in the year 192, in adding Sparta
to the league, which now embraced the whole of Peloponnesus.  But
Sparta having displayed symptoms of insubordination, Philopoemen
marched against it in 188, and captured the city; when he put to
death eighty of the leading men, razed the walls and
fortifications, abolished the institutions of Lycurgus, and
compelled the citizens to adopt the democratic constitution of
the Achaeans.  Meanwhile the Romans regarded with satisfaction
the internal dissensions of Greece, which they foresaw would only
render her an easier prey, and neglected to answer the appeals of
the Spartans for protection.  In 183 the Messenians, under the
leadership of Dinocrates, having revolted from the league,
Philopoemen, who had now attained the age of 70, led an
expedition against them; but having fallen from his horse in a
skirmish of cavalry, he was captured, and conveyed with many
circumstances of ignominy to Messene, where, after a sort of mock
trial, he was executed.  His fate was avenged by Lycortas, the
commander of the Achaean cavalry, the father of the historian

In B.C. 179 Philip died, and was succeeded by his son Perseus,
the last monarch of Macedonia.  The latter years of the reign of
Philip had been spent in preparations for a renewal of the war,
which he foresaw to be inevitable; yet a period of seven years
elapsed after the accession of Perseus before the mutual enmity
of the two powers broke out into open hostilities.  The war was
protracted three years without any decisive result; but was
brought to a conclusion in 168 by the consul L. AEmilius Paulus,
who defeated Perseus with great loss near Pydna.  Perseus was
carried to Rome to adorn the triumph of Paulus (167), and was
permitted to spend the remainder of his life in a sort of
honourable captivity at Alba.  Such was the end of the Macedonian
empire, which was now divided into four districts, each under the
jurisdiction of an oligarchical council.

The Roman commissioners deputed to arrange the affairs of
Macedonia did not confine their attention to that province, but
evinced their design of bringing all Greece under the Roman sway.
In these views they were assisted by various despots and traitors
in different Grecian cities, and especially by Callicrates, a man
of great influence among the Achaeans, and who for many years
lent himself as the base tool of the Romans to effect the
enslavement of his country.  After the fall of Macedonia,
Callicrates denounced more than a thousand leading Achaeans who
had favoured the cause of Perseus.  These, among whom was
Polybius the historian, were apprehended and sent to Rome for
trial.  A still harder fate was experienced by AEtolia, Boeotia,
Acarnania, and Epirus.  In the last-named country, especially, no
fewer than seventy of the principal towns were abandoned by
Paulus to his soldiers for pillage, and 150,000 persons are said
to have been sold into slavery.

A quarrel between the Achaeans and Sparta afforded the Romans a
pretence for crushing the small remains of Grecian independence
by the destruction of the Achaean league.

The Spartans, feeling themselves incompetent to resist the
Achaeans, appealed to the Romans for assistance; and in 147 two
Roman commissioners were sent to Greece to settle the disputes
between the two states.  These commissioners decided that not
only Sparta, but Corinth, and all the other cities, except those
of Achaia, should be restored to their independence.  This
decision occasioned serious riots at Corinth, the most important
city of the league.  All the Spartans in the town were seized,
and even the Roman commissioners narrowly escaped violence.  On
their return to Rome a fresh embassy was despatched to demand
satisfaction for these outrages.  But the violent and impolitic
conduct of Critolaus, then Strategus of the league, rendered all
attempts at accommodation fruitless, and after the return of the
ambassadors the Senate declared war against the league.  The
cowardice and incompetence of Critolaus as a general were only
equalled by his previous insolence.  On the approach of the
Romans under Metellus from Macedonia he did not even venture to
make a stand at Thermopylae; and being overtaken by them near
Scarphea in Locris, he was totally defeated, and never again
heard of.  Diaeus, who succeeded him as Strategus, displayed
rather more energy and courage.  But a fresh Roman force under
Mummius having landed on the isthmus, Diaeus was overthrown in a
battle near Corinth; and that city was immediately evacuated not
only by the troops of the league, but also by the greater part of
the inhabitants.  On entering it Mummius put the few males who
remained to the sword; sold the women and children as slaves and
having carried away all its treasures, consigned it to the flames
(B.C. 146).  Corinth was filled with masterpieces of ancient art;
but Mummius was so insensible to their surpassing excellence as
to stipulate with those who contracted to convey them to Italy,
that, if any were lost in the passage, they should be replaced by
others of equal value!  Mummius then employed himself in
chastising and regulating the whole of Greece; and ten
commissioners were sent from Rome to settle its future condition.
The whole country, to the borders of Macedonia and Epirus, was
formed into a Roman province, under the name of ACHAIA, derived
from that confederacy which had made the last struggle for its
political existence.



The Greeks possessed two large collections of epic poetry.  The
one comprised poems relating to the great events and enterprises
of the Heroic age, and characterised by a certain poetical unity;
the other included works tamer in character and more desultory in
their mode of treatment, containing the genealogies of men and
gods, narratives of the exploits of separate heroes, and
descriptions of the ordinary pursuits of life.  The poems of the
former class passed under the name of Homer; while those of the
latter were in the same general way ascribed to Hesiod.  The
former were the productions of the Ionic and AEolic minstrels in
Asia Minor, among whom Homer stood pre-eminent and eclipsed the
brightness of the rest:  the latter were the compositions of a
school of bards in the neighbourhood of Mount Helicon in Boeotia,
among whom in like manner Hesiod enjoyed the greatest celebrity.
The poems of both schools were composed in the hexameter metre
and in a similar dialect; but they differed widely in almost
every other feature.

Of the Homeric poems the Iliad and the Odyssey were the most
distinguished and have alone come down to us.  The subject of the
Iliad was the exploits of Achilles and of the other Grecian
heroes before Ilium or Troy; that of the Odyssey was the
wanderings and adventures of Odysseus or Ulysses after the
capture of Troy on his return to his native island.  Throughout
the flourishing period of Greek literature these unrivalled works
were universally regarded as the productions of a single mind;
but there was very little agreement respecting the place of the
poet's birth the details of his life, or the time in which he
lived.  Seven cities laid claim to Homer's birth, and most of
them had legends to tell respecting his romantic parentage, his
alleged blindness, and his life of an itinerant bard acquainted
with poverty and sorrow.  It cannot be disputed that he was an
Asiatic Greek; but this is the only fact in his life which can be
regarded as certain.  Several of the best writers of antiquity
supposed him to have been a native of the island of Chios; but
most modern scholars believe Smyrna to have been his birthplace.
His most probable date is about B.C. 850.

The mode in which these poems were preserved has occasioned great
controversy in modern times.  Even if they were committed to
writing by the poet himself, and were handed down to posterity in
this manner, it is certain that they were rarely read.  We must
endeavour to realise the difference between ancient Greece and
our own times.  During the most flourishing period of Athenian
literature manuscripts were indifferently written, without
division into parts, and without marks of punctuation.  They were
scarce and costly, could be obtained only by the wealthy, and
read only by those who had had considerable literary training.
Under these circumstances the Greeks could never become a reading
people; and thus the great mass even of the Athenians became
acquainted with the productions of the leading poets of Greece
only by hearing them recited at their solemn festivals and on
other public occasions.  This was more strikingly the case at an
earlier period.  The Iliad and the Odyssey were not read by
individuals in private, but were sung or recited at festivals or
to assembled companies.  The bard originally sung his own lays to
the accompaniment of his lyre.  He was succeeded by a body of
professional reciters, called Rhapsodists, who rehearsed the
poems of others.  and who appear at early times to have had
exclusive possession of the Homeric poems.  But in the seventh
century before the Christian era literary culture began to
prevail among the Greeks; and men of education and wealth were
naturally desirous of obtaining copies of the great poet of the
nation.  From this cause copies came to be circulated among the
Greeks; but most of them contained only separate portions of the
poems, or single rhapsodes, as they were called.  Pisistratus,
the tyrant or despot of Athens, is said to have been the first
person who collected and arranged the poems in their present
form, in order that they might be recited at the great
Panathenaic festival at Athens.

Three works have come down to us bearing the name of Hesiod--the
'Works and Days,' the 'Theogony,' and a description of the
'Shield of Hercules.' Many ancient critics believed the 'Works
and Days' to be the only genuine work of Hesiod, and their
opinion has been adopted by most modern scholars.  We learn from
this work that Hesiod was a native of Ascra, a village at the
foot of Mount Helicon, to which his father had migrated from the
AEolian Cyme in Asia Minor.  He further tells us that he gained
the prize at Chalcis in a poetical contest; and that he was
robbed of a fair share of his heritage by the unrighteous
decision of judges who had been bribed by his brother Perses.
The latter became afterwards reduced in circumstances, and
applied to his brother for relief; and it is to him that Hesiod
addresses his didactic poem of the 'Works and Days,' in which he
lays down various moral and social maxims for the regulation of
his conduct and his life.  It contains an interesting
representation of the feelings, habits, and superstitions of the
rural population of Greece in the earlier ages.  Respecting the
date of Hesiod nothing certain can be affirmed.  Modern writers
usually suppose him to have flourished two or three generations
later than Homer.

The commencement of Greek lyric poetry as a cultivated species of
composition dates from the middle of the seventh century before
the Christian era.  No important event either in the public or
private life of a Greek could dispense with this accompaniment;
and the lyric song was equally needed to solemnize the worship of
the gods, to cheer the march to battle, or to enliven the festive
board.  The lyric poetry, with the exception of that of Pindar,
has almost entirely perished, and all that we possess of it;
consists of a few songs and isolated fragments.

The great satirist ARCHILOCHUS was one of the earliest and most
celebrated of all the lyric poets.  He was a native of the island
of Paros, and flourished about the year 700 B.C.  His fame rests
chiefly on his terrible satires, composed in the Iambic metre.
in which he gave vent to the bitterness of a disappointed man.

TYRTAEUS and ALCMAN were the two great lyric poets of Sparta,
though neither of them was a native of Lacedaemon.  The personal
history of Tyrtaeus, and his warlike songs which roused the
fainting courage of the Spartans during the second Messenian war,
have already been mentioned.  Alcman was originally a Lydian
slave in a Spartan family, and was emancipated by his master.  He
lived shortly after the second Messenian war.  His poems partake
of the character of this period, which was one of repose and
enjoyment after the fatigues and perils of war.  Many of his
songs celebrate the pleasures of good eating and drinking; but
the more important were intended to be sung by a chorus at the
public festivals of Sparta.

ARION was a native of Methymna in Lesbos, and lived some time at
the court of Periander, tyrant of Corinth, who began to reign
B.C. 625.  Nothing is known of his life beyond the beautiful
story of his escape from the sailors with whom he sailed from
Sicily to Corinth.  On one occasion, thus runs the story, Arion
went to Sicily to take part in a musical contest.  He won the
prize, and, laden with presents, he embarked in a Corinthian ship
to return to his friend Periander.  The rude sailors coveted his
treasures, and meditated his murder.  After imploring them in
vain to spare his life, he obtained permission to play for the
last time on his beloved lyre.  In festal attire he placed
himself on the prow of the vessel, invoked the gods in inspired
strains, and then threw himself into the sea.  But many song-
loving dolphins had assembled round the vessel, and one of them
now took the bard on its back.  and carried him to Taenarum, from
whence he returned to Corinth in safety, and related his
adventure to Periander.  Upon the arrival of the Corinthian
vessel, Periander inquired of the sailors after Arion, who
replied that he had remained behind at Tarentum; but when Arion,
at the bidding of Periander, came forward, the sailors owned
their guilt, and were punished according to their desert.  The
great improvement in lyric poetry ascribed to Arion is the
invention of the Dithyramb.  This was a choral song and dance in
honour of the god Dionysus, and is of great interest in the
history of poetry, since it was the germ from which sprung at a
later time the magnificent productions of the tragic Muse at

ALCAEUS and SAPPHO were both natives of Mytilene in the island of
Lesbos, and flourished about B.C. 610-580.  Their songs were
composed for a single voice, and not for the chorus, and they
were each the inventor of a new metre, which bears their name,
and is familiar to us by the well-known odes of Horace.  Their
poetry was the warm outpouring of the writers' inmost feelings,
and present the lyric poetry of the AEolians at its highest

Alcaeus took an active part in the civil dissensions of his
native state, and warmly espoused the cause of the aristocratical
party, to which he belonged by birth.  When the nobles were
driven into exile, he endeavoured to cheer their spirits by a
number of most animated odes, full of invectives against the
popular party and its leaders.

Of the events of Sappho's life we have scarcely any information;
and the common story that, being in love with Phaon and finding
her love unrequited, she leaped down from the Leucadian rock,
seems to have been an invention of later times.

ANACREON was a native of the Ionian city of Teos.  He spent part
of his life at Samos, under the patronage of Polycrates; and
after the death of this despot he went to Athens at the
invitation of Hipparchus.  The universal tradition of antiquity
represents Anacreon as a consummate voluptuary; and his poems
prove the truth of the tradition.  His death was worthy of his
life, if we may believe the account that he was choked by a

SIMONIDES, of the island of Ceos, was born B.C. 556, and reached
a great age.  He lived many years at Athens, both at the court of
Hipparchus, together with Anacreon, and subsequently under the
democracy during the Persian wars.  The struggles of Greece for
her independence furnished him with a noble subject for his muse.
He carried away the prize from AEschylus with an elegy upon the
warriors who had fallen at the battle of Marathon.  Subsequently
we find him celebrating the heroes of Thermopylae, Artemisium,
Salamis, and Plataea.  He was upwards of 80 when his long
poetical career at Athens was closed with the victory which he
gained with the dithyrambic chorus in B.C. 477, making the 56th
prize that he had carried off.  Shortly after this event he
repaired to Syracuse at the invitation of Hiero.  Here he spent
the remaining ten years of his life, not only entertaining Hiero
with his poetry, but instructing him by his wisdom; for Simonides
was a philosopher as well as a poet, and is reckoned amongst the

PINDAR, though the contemporary of Simonides, was considerably
his junior:  He was born either at, or in the neighbourhood of,
Thebes in Boeotia, about the year 522 B.C.  Later writers tell us
that his future glory as a poet was miraculously foreshadowed by
a swarm of bees which rested upon his lips while he was asleep,
and that this miracle first led him to compose poetry.  He
commenced his professional career at an early age, and soon
acquired so great a reputation, that he was employed by various
states and princes of the Hellenic race to compose choral songs.
He was courted especially by Alexander, king of Macedonia, and by
Hiero, despot of Syracuse.  The praises which he bestowed upon
Alexander are said to have been the chief reason which led his
descendant, Alexander the Great, to spare the house of the poet
when he destroyed the rest of Thebes.  The estimation in which
Pindar was held is also shown by the honours conferred upon him
by the free states of Greece.  Although a Theban, he was always a
great favourite with the Athenians, whom he frequently praised in
his poems, and who testified their gratitude by making him their
public guest, and by giving him 10,000 drachmas.  The only poems
of Pindar which have come down to us entire are his Epinicia or
triumphal odes, composed in commemoration of victories gained in
the great public games.  But these were only a small portion of
his works.  He also wrote hymns, paeans, dithyrambs, odes for
processions, songs of maidens, mimic dancing songs, drinking
songs, dirges and encomia, or panegyrics on princes.

The Greeks had arrived at a high pitch of civilization before
they can be said to have possessed a HISTORY.  The first essays
in literary prose cannot be placed earlier than the sixth century
before the Christian aera; but the first writer who deserves the
name of an historian is HERODOTUS, hence called the Father of
History.  Herodotus was born in the Dorian colony of
Halicarnassus in Caria, in the year 484 B.C., and accordingly
about the time of the Persian expeditions into Greece.  He
resided some years in Samos, and also undertook extensive
travels, of which he speaks in his work.  There was scarcely a
town in Greece or on the coasts of Asia Minor with which he was
not acquainted; he had explored Thrace and the coasts of the
Black Sea; in Egypt he had penetrated as far south as
Elephantine; and in Asia he had visited the cities of Babylon,
Ecbatana, and Susa.  The latter part of his life was spent at
Thurii, a colony founded by the Athenians in Italy in B.C. 443.
According to a well-known story in Lucian, Herodotus, when he had
completed hia work, recited it publicly at the great Olympic
festival, as the best means of procuring for it that celebrity to
which he felt that it was entitled.  The effect is described as
immediate and complete.  The delighted audience at once assigned
the names of the nine Muses to the nine books into which it is
divided.  A still later author (Suidas) adds, that Thucydides,
then a boy, was present at the festival with his father Olorus,
and was so affected by the recital as to shed tears; upon which
Herodotus congratulated Olorus on having a son who possessed so
early such a zeal for knowledge.  But there are many objections
to the probability of these tales.

Herodotus interwove into his history all the varied and extensive
knowledge acquired in his travels, and by big own personal
researches.  But the real subject of the work is the conflict
between the Greek race, in the widest sense of the term, and
including the Greeks of Asia Minor, with the Asiatics.  Thus the
historian had a vast epic subject presented to him, which was
brought to a natural and glorious termination by the defeat of
the Persians in their attempts upon Greece.  The work concludes
with the reduction of Sestos by the Athenians, B.C. 478.
Herodotus wrote in the Ionic dialect, and his style is marked by
an ease and simplicity which lend it an indescribable charm.

THUCYDIDES, the greatest of the Greek historians, was an
Athenian, and was born in the year 471 B.C.  His family was
connected with that of Miltiades and Cimon.  He possessed gold-
mines in Thrace, and enjoyed great influence in that country.  He
commanded an Athenian squadron of seven ships at Thasos, in 424
B.C., at the time when Brasidas was besieging Amphipolis; and
having failed to relieve that city in time, he went into a
voluntary exile, in order probably to avoid the punishment of
death.  He appears to have spent 20 years in banishment,
principally in the Peloponnesus, or in places under the dominion
or influence of Sparta.  He perhaps returned to Athens in B.C.
403, the date of its liberation by Thrasybulus.  According to the
unanimous testimony of antiquity he met with a violent end, and
it seems probable that he was assassinated at Athens, since it
cannot be doubted that his tomb existed there.  From the
beginning of the Peloponnesian war he had designed to write its
history, and he employed himself in collecting materials for that
purpose during its continuance; but it is most likely that the
work was not actually composed till after the conclusion of the
war, and that he was engaged upon it at the time of his death.
The first book of his History is introductory, and contains a
rapid sketch of Grecian history from the remotest times to the
breaking out of the war.  The remaining seven books are filled
with the details of the war, related according to the division
into summers and winters, into which all campaigns naturally
fall; and the work breaks off abruptly in the middle of the 21st
year of the war (B.C. 411).  The materials of Thucydides were
collected with the most scrupulous care; the events are related
with the strictest impartiality; and the work probably offers a
more exact account of a long and eventful period than any other
contemporary history, whether ancient or modern, of an equally
long and important aera. The style of Thucydides is brief and
sententious, and whether in moral or political reasoning, or in
description, gains wonderful force from its condensation.  But
this characteristic is sometimes carried to a faulty extent, so
as to render his style harsh, and his meaning obscure.

XENOPHON, the son of Gryllus, was also an Athenian, and was
probably born about B.C. 444.  He was a pupil of Socrates, who
saved his life at the battle of Delium (B.C. 424).  His
accompanying Cyrus the younger in his expedition against his
brother Artaxerxes, king of Persia, formed a striking episode in
his life, and has been recorded by himself in his ANABASIS.  He
seems to have been still in Asia at the time of the death of
Socrates in 399 B.C., and was probably banished from Athens soon
after that period, in consequence of his close connexion with the
Lacedaemonians.  He accompanied Agesilaus, the Spartan king, on
the return of the latter from Asia to Greece; and he fought along
with the Lacedaemonians against his own countrymen at the battle
of Coronea in 394 B.C.  After this battle he went with Agesilaus
to Sparta, and soon afterwards settled at Scillus in Elis, near
Olympia.  He is said to have lived to more than 90 years of age,
and he mentions an event which occurred as late as 357 B.C.

Probably all the works of Xenophon are still extant.  The
ANABASIS is the work on which his fame as an historian chiefly
rests.  It is written in a simple and agreeable style, and
conveys much curious and striking information.  The HELLENICA is
a continuation of the history of Thucydides, and comprehends in
seven books a space of about 48 years; namely, from the time when
Thucydides breaks off, B.C. 411, to the battle of Mantinea in
362.  The subject is treated in a very dry and uninteresting
style; and his evident partiality to Sparta, and dislike of
Athens, have frequently warped his judgment, and must cause his
statements to be received with some suspicion.  The CYROPAEDIA,
one of the most pleasing and popular of his works, professes to
be a history of Cyrus, the founder of the Persian monarchy, but
is in reality a kind of political romance, and possesses no
authority whatever as an historical work.  The design of the
author seems to have been to draw a picture of a perfect state;
and though the scene is laid in Persia, the materials of the work
are derived from his own philosophical notions and the usages of
Sparta engrafted on the popularly current stories respecting
Cyrus.  Xenophon displays in this work his dislike of democratic
institutions like those of Athens, and his preference for an
aristocracy, or even a monarchy.  Xenophon was also the author of
several minor works; but the only other treatise which we need
mention is the MEMORABILIA of Socrates, in four books, intended
as a defence of his master against the charges which occasioned
his death, and which undoubtedly contains a genuine picture of
Socrates and his philosophy.  The genius of Xenophon was not of
the highest order; it was practical rather than speculative; but
he is distinguished for his good sense, his moderate views, his
humane temper, and his earnest piety.

The DRAMA pre-eminently distinguished Athenian literature.  The
democracy demanded a literature of a popular kind, the vivacity
of the people a literature that made a lively impression; and
both these conditions were fulfilled by the drama.  But though
brought to perfection among the Athenians, tragedy and comedy, in
their rude and early origin, were Dorian inventions.  Both arose
out of the worship of Dionysus.  There was at first but little
distinction between these two species of the drama, except that
comedy belonged more to the rural celebration of the Dionysiac
festivals, and tragedy to that in cities.  The name of TRAGEDY
was far from signifying any thing mournful, being derived from
the goat-like appearance of those who, disguised as Satyrs,
performed the old Dionysiac songs and dances.  In like manner,
COMEDY was called after the song of the band of revellers who
celebrated the vintage festivals of Dionysus, and vented the rude
merriment inspired by the occasion in jibes and extempore
witticisms levelled at the spectators.  Tragedy, in its more
perfect form, was the offspring of the dithyrambic odes with
which that worship was celebrated.  These were not always of a
joyous cast.  Some of them expressed the sufferings of Dionysus;
and it was from this more mournful species of dithyramb that
tragedy, properly so called, arose.  The dithyrambic odes formed
a kind of lyrical tragedy, and were sung by a chorus of fifty
men, dancing round the altar of Dionysus.  The improvements in
the dithyramb were introduced by Arion at Corinth; and it was
chiefly among the Dorian states of the Peloponnesus that these
choral dithyrambic songs prevailed.  Hence, even in attic
tragedy, the chorus, which was the foundation of the drama, was
written in the Doric dialect, thus clearly betraying the source
from which the Athenians derived it.

In Attica an important alteration was made in the old tragedy in
the time of Pisistratus, in consequence of which it obtained a
new and dramatic character.  This innovation is ascribed to
THESPIS, a native of the Attic village of Icaria, B.C. 535.  It
consisted in the introduction of an actor for the purpose of
giving rest to the chorus.  Thespis was succeeded by Choerilus
and Phrynichus, the latter of whom gained his first prize in the
dramatic contests in 511 B.C.  The Dorian Pratinas, a native of
Philius, but who exhibited his tragedies at Athens, introduced an
improvement in tragedy by separating the Satyric from the tragic
drama.  As neither the popular taste nor the ancient religious
associations connected with the festivals of Dionysus would have
permitted the chorus of Satyrs to be entirely banished from the
tragic representations, Pratinas avoided this by the invention of
what is called the Satyric drama; that is, a species of play in
which the ordinary subjects of tragedy were treated in a lively
and farcical manner, and in which the chorus consisted of a band
of Satyrs in appropriate dresses and masks.  After this period it
became customary to exhibit dramas in TETRALOGIES, or sets of
four; namely, a tragic trilogy, or series of three tragedies,
followed by a Satyric play.  These were often on connected
subjects; and the Satyric drama at the end served like a merry
after-piece to relieve the minds of the spectators.

The subjects of Greek tragedy were taken, with few exceptions,
from the national mythology.  Hence the plot and story were of
necessity known to the spectators, a circumstance which strongly
distinguished the ancient tragedy from the modern.  It must also
be recollected that the representation of tragedies did not take
place every day, but only, after certain fixed intervals, at the
festivals of Dionysus, of which they formed one of the greatest
attractions.  During the whole day the Athenian public sat in the
theatre witnessing tragedy after tragedy; and a prize was awarded
by judges appointed for the purpose to the poet who produced the
best set of dramas.

Such was Attic tragedy when it came into the hands of AESCHYLUS,
who, from the great improvements which he introduced, was
regarded by the Athenians as its father or founder, just as Homer
was of Epic poetry, and Herodotus of History.  AEschylus was born
at Eleusis in Attica in B.C. 525, and was thus contemporary with
Simonides and Pindar.  He fought with his brother Cynaegirus at
the battle of Marathon, and also at those of Artemisium, Salamis,
and Plataea.  In B.C. 484 he gained his first tragic prize.  In
468 he was defeated in a tragic contest by his younger rival
Sophocles; shortly afterwards he retired to the court of king
Hiero, at Syracuse, He died at Gela, in Sicily, in 456, in the
69th year of his age.  It is unanimously related that an eagle,
mistaking the poet's bald head for a stone, let a tortoise fall
upon it in order to break the shell, thus fulfilling an oracle
predicting that he was to die by a blow from heaven.  The
improvements introduced into tragedy by AEschylus concerned both
its form and composition, and its manner of representation.  In
the former his principal innovation was the introduction of a
second actor; whence arose the dialogue, properly so called, and
the limitation of the choral parts, which now became subsidiary.
His improvements in the manner of representing tragedy consisted
in the introduction of painted scenes, drawn according to the
rules of perspective.  He furnished the actors with more
appropriate and more magnificent dresses, invented for them more
various and expressive masks, and raised their stature to the
heroic size by providing them with thick-soled cothurni or
buskins.  AEschylus excels in representing the superhuman, in
depicting demigods and heroes, and in tracing the irresistible
march of fate.  His style resembles the ideas which it clothes:
it is bold, sublime, and full of gorgeous imagery, but sometimes
borders on the turgid.

SOPHOCLES, the younger rival and immediate successor of Aeschylus
in the tragic art, was born at Colonus, a village about a mile
from Athens, in B.C. 495.  We have already adverted to his
wresting the tragic prize from AEschylus in 468, from which time
he seems to have retained the almost undisputed possession of the
Athenian stage, until a young but formidable rival arose in the
person of Euripides.  The close of his life was troubled with
family dissensions.  Iophon, his son by an Athenian wife, and
therefore his legitimate heir, was jealous of the affection
manifested by his father for his grandson Sophocles, the
offspring of another son, Ariston, whom he had had by a Sicyonian
woman.  Fearing lest his father should bestow a great part of his
property upon his favourite, Iophon summoned him before the
Phratores, or tribesmen, on the ground that his mind was
affected.  The old man's only reply was--"If I am Sophocles I am
not beside myself; and if I am beside myself I am not Sophocles."
Then taking up his OEDIPUS AT COLONUS, which he had lately
written, but had not yet brought out, he read from it a beautiful
passage, with which the judges were so struck that they at once
dismissed the case.  He died shortly afterwards, in B.C. 406, in
his 90th year.  As a poet Sophocles is universally allowed to
have brought the drama to the greatest perfection of which it is
susceptible.  His plays stand in the just medium between the
sublime but unregulated flights of AEschylus, and the too
familiar scenes and rhetorical declamations of Euripides.  His
plots are worked up with more skill and care than the plots of
either of his great rivals.  Sophocles added the last improvement
to the form of the drama by the introduction of a third actor; a
change which greatly enlarged the scope of the action.  The
improvement was so obvious that it was adopted by AEschylus in
his later plays; but the number of three actors seems to have
been seldom or never exceeded.

EURIPIDES was born in the island of Salamis, in B.C. 480 his
parents having been among those who fled thither at the time of
the invasion of Attics by Xerxes.  He studied rhetoric under
Prodicus, and physics under Anaxagoras and he also lived on
intimate terms with Socrates.  In 441 he gained his first prize,
and he continued to exhibit plays until 408, the date of his
Orestes.  Soon after this he repaired to the court of Macedonia,
at the invitation of king Archelaus, where he died two years
afterwards at the age of 74 (B.C. 406).  Common report relates
that he was torn to pieces by the king's dogs, which, according
to some accounts, were set upon him by two rival poets out of
envy.  In treating his characters and subjects Euripides often
arbitrarily departed from the received legends, and diminished
the dignity of tragedy by depriving it of its ideal character,
and by bringing it down to the level of every-day life.  His
dialogue was garrulous and colloquial, wanting in heroic dignity,
and frequently frigid through misplaced philosophical
disquisitions.  Yet in spite of all these faults Euripides has
many beauties, and is particularly remarkable for pathos, so that
Aristotle calls him "the most tragic of poets."

Comedy received its full development at Athens from Cratinus, who
lived in the age of Pericles.  Cratinus, and his younger
contemporaries Eupolis and Aristophanes, were the three great
poets of what is called the Old Attic Comedy.  The comedies of
Cratinus and Eupolis are lost; but of Aristophanes, who was the
greatest of the three, we have eleven dramas extant.
ARISTOPHANES was born about 444 B.C.  Of his private life we know
positively nothing.  He exhibited his first comedy in 427, and
from that time till near his death, which probably happened about
380, he was a frequent contributor to the Attic stage.  The OLD
ATTIC COMEDY was a powerful vehicle for the expression of
opinion; and most of the comedies of Aristophanes turned either
upon political occurrences, or upon some subject which excited
the interest of the Athenian public.  Their chief object was to
excite laughter by the boldest and most ludicrous caricature; and
provided that end was attained the poet seems to have cared but
little about the justice of the picture.  Towards the end of the
career of Aristophanes the unrestricted licence and libellous
personality of comedy began gradually to disappear.  The chorus
was first curtailed and then entirely suppressed, and thus made
way for what is called the Middle Comedy, which had no chorus at
all.  The latter still continued to be in some degree political;
but persons were no longer introduced upon the stage under their
real names, and the office of the chorus was very much curtailed.
It was, in fact, the connecting link between the Old Comedy and
the New, or the Comedy of Manners.  The NEW COMEDY arose after
Athens had become subject to the Macedonians.  Politics were now
excluded from the stage, and the materials of the dramatic poet
were derived entirely from the fictitious adventures of persons
in private life.  The two most distinguished writers of this
school were PHILEMON and MENANDER.  Philemon was probably born
about the year 360 B.C., and was either a Cilician or Syracusan,
but came at an early age to Athens.  He is considered as the
founder of the New Comedy, which was soon afterwards brought to
perfection by his younger contemporary Menander.  The latter was
an Athenian, and was born in B.C. 312.  He was drowned at the age
of 52, whilst swimming in the harbour of Piraeus.  He wrote
upwards of 100 comedies, of which only fragments remain; and the
unanimous praise of posterity awakens our regret for the loss of
one of the most elegant writers of antiquity.  The comedies,
indeed, of Plautus and Terence may give us a general notion of
the New Comedy of the Greeks, from which they were confessedly
drawn; but there is good reason to suppose that the works even of
the latter Roman writer fell far short of the wit and elegance of

The latter days of literary Athens were chiefly distinguished by
the genius of her ORATORS and PHILOSOPHERS.  There were ten Attic
orators, whose works were collected by the Greek grammarians, and
many of whose orations have come down to us.  Their names are
Antiphon, Andocides, Lysias, Isocrates, Isaeus, AEschines,
Lycurgus, Demosthenes, Hyperides and Dinarchus.  ANTIPHON, the
earliest of the ten was born B.C. 480.  He opened a school of
rhetoric, and numbered among his pupils the historian Thucydides.
Antiphon was put to death in 411 B.C. for the part which he took
in establishing the oligarchy of the Four Hundred.

ANDOCIDES, who was concerned with Alcibiades in the affair of the
Hermae, was born at Athens in B.C. 467, tend died probably about

LYSIAS, also born at Athens in 458, was much superior to
Andocides as an orator, but being a METIC or resident alien, he
was not allowed to speak in the assemblies or courts of justice,
and therefore wrote orations for others to deliver.

ISOCRATES was born in 436.  After receiving the instructions of
some of the most celebrated sophists of the day, he became
himself a speech-writer and professor of rhetoric; his weakly
constitution and natural timidity preventing him from taking a
part in public life.  He made away with himself in 338, after the
fatal battle of Chaeronea, in despair, it is said, of his
country's fate.  He took great pains with his compositions, and
is reported to have spent ten, or, according to others, fifteen
years over his Panegyric oration.

ISAEUS flourished between the end of the Peloponnesian war and
the accession of Philip of Macedon.  He opened a school of
rhetoric at Athens, and is said to have numbered Demosthenes
among his pupils.  The orations of Isaeus were exclusively
judicial, and the whole of the eleven which have come down to us
turn on the subject of inheritances.

AESCHINES was born in the year 389, and he was at first a violent
anti-Macedonian; but after his embassy along with Demosthenes and
others to Philip's court, he was the constant advocate of peace,
Demosthenes and AEschines now became the leading speakers on
their respective sides, and the heat of political animosity soon
degenerated into personal hatred.  In 343 Demosthenes charged
AEschines with having received bribes from Philip during a second
embassy; and the speech in which he brought forward this
accusation was answered in another by AEschines.  The result of
this charge is unknown, but it seems to have detracted from the
popularity of AEschines.  We have already adverted to his
impeachment of Ctesiphon, and the celebrated reply of Demosthenes
in his speech DE CORONA.  After the banishment of AEschines on
this occasion (B.C. 330), he employed himself in teaching
rhetoric at Rhodes.  He died in Samos in 314.  As an orator he
was second only to Demosthenes.

Of the life of his great rival, DEMOSTHENES, we have already
given some account.  The verdict of his contemporaries, ratified
by posterity, has pronounced Demosthenes the greatest; orator
that ever lived.  The principal element of his success must be
traced in his purity of purpose, which gave to his arguments all
the force of conscientious conviction.  The effect of his
speeches was still further heightened by a wonderful and almost
magic force of diction.  The grace and vivacity of his delivery
are attested by the well-known anecdote of AEschines, when he
read at Rhodes his speech against Ctesiphon.  His audience having
expressed their surprise that he should have been defeated after
such an oration  "You would cease to wonder," he remarked, "if
you had heard Demosthenes."

The remaining three Attic orators, viz. LYCURGUS, HYPERIDES, and
DINARCHUS, were contemporaries of Demosthenes.  Lycurgus and
Hyperides both belonged to the anti-Macedonian party, and were
warm supporters of the policy of Demosthenes.  Dinarchus, who is
the least important of the Attic orators, survived Demosthenes,
and was a friend of Demetrius Phalereus.

The history of Greek PHILOSOPHY, like that of Greek poetry and
history, began in Asia Minor.  The earliest philosopher of
distinction was THALES of Miletus, who was born about B.C. 640,
and died in 554 at the age of 90.  He was the founder of the
IONIC school of philosophy, and to him were traced the first
beginnings of geometry and astronomy.  The main doctrine of his
philosophical system was, that water, or fluid substance was the
single original element from which everything came and into which
everything returned.  ANAXIMANDER, the successor of Thales in the
Ionic school, lived from B.C. 610 to 547.  He was distinguished
for his knowledge of astronomy and geography, and is said to have
been the first to introduce the use of the sun-dial into Greece.
ANAXIMENES, the third in the series of the Ionian philosophers,
lived a little later than Anaximander.  He endeavoured, like
Thales, to derive the origin of all material things from a single
element; and, according to his theory, air was the source of

A new path was struck out by ANAXAGORAS Of Clazomenae, the most
illustrious of the Ionic philosophers.  He came to Athens in 480
B.C., where he continued to teach for thirty years, numbering
among his hearers Pericles, Socrates, and Euripides.  He
abandoned the system of his predecessors, and, instead of
regarding some elementary form of matter as the origin of all
things, he conceived a supreme mind or intelligence, distinct
from the visible world, to have imparted form and order to the
chaos of nature.  These innovations afforded the Athenians a
pretext for indicting Anaxagoras of impiety, though it is
probable that his connexion with Pericles was the real cause of
that proceeding (see Ch.IX).  It was only through the influence
and eloquence of Pericles that he was not put to death; but he
was sentenced to pay a fine of five talents and quit Athens.  The
philosopher retired to Lampsacus, where he died at the age of 72.

The second school of Greek philosophy was the ELEATIC which
derived its name from Elea or Velia, a Greek colony on the
western coast of Southern Italy.  It was founded by XENOPHANES of
Colophon, who fled to Elea on the conquest of his native land by
the Persians.  He conceived the whole of nature to be God.

The third school of philosophy was the PYTHAGOREAN, founded by
PYTHAGORAS.  He was a native of Samos and was born about B.C.
580.  His father was an opulent merchant, and Pythagoras himself
travelled extensively in the East.  He believed in the
transmigration of souls; and later writers relate that Pythagoras
asserted that his own soul had formerly dwelt in the body of the
Trojan Euphorbus, the son of Panthous, who was slain by Menelaus,
and that in proof of his assertion he took down, at first
sight,the shield of Euphorbus from the temple of Hera (Juno) at
Argos, where it had been dedicated by Menelaus.  Pythagoras was
distinguished by his knowledge of geometry and arithmetic; and it
was probably from his teaching that the Pythagoreans were led to
regard numbers in some mysterious manner as the basis and essence
of all things.  He was however more of the religious teacher than
of the philosopher; and he looked upon himself as a being
destined by the gods to reveal to his disciples a new and a purer
mode of life.  He founded at Croton in Italy a kind of religious
brotherhood, the members of which were bound together by peculiar
rites and observances.  Everything done and taught in the
fraternity was kept a profound secret from all without its pale.
It appears that the members had some private signs, like
Freemasons, by which they could recognise each other, even if
they had never met before.  His doctrines spread rapidly over
Magna Graecia, and clubs of a similar character were established
at Sybaris, Metapontum, Tarentum, and other cities.

At Athens a new direction was given to the study of philosophy by
Socrates, of whom an account has been already given.  To his
teaching either directly of indirectly may be traced the origin
of the four principal Grecian schools:  the ACADEMICIANS,
established by Plato; the PERIPATETICS, founded by his pupil
Aristotle; the EPICUREANS, so named from their master Epicurus;
and the STOICS, founded by Zeno.

PLATO was born at Athens in 429 B.C., the year in which Pericles
died.  His first literary attempts were in poetry; but his
attention was soon turned to philosophy by the teaching of
Socrates, whose lectures he began to frequent at about the age of
twenty.  From that time till the death of Socrates he appears to
have lived in the closest intimacy with that philosopher.  After
that event Plato withdrew to Megara, and subsequently undertook
some extensive travels, in the course of which he visited Cyrene,
Egypt, Sicily, and Magna Graecia.  His intercourse with the elder
and the younger Dionysius at Syracuse has been already related
His absence from Athens lasted about twelve years; on his return,
being then upwards of forty, he began to teach in the gymnasium
of the Academy.  His doctrines were too recondite for the popular
ear, and his lectures were not very numerously attended.  But he
had a narrower circle of devoted admirers and disciples,
consisting of about twenty-eight persons, who met in his private
house; over the vestibule of which was inscribed--"Let no one
enter who is ignorant of geometry."  The most distinguished of
this little band of auditors were Speusippus, his nephew and
successor, and Aristotle.  He died in 347, at the age of 81 or
82, and bequeathed his garden to his school.

ARISTOTLE was born in 381 B.C., at Stagira, a seaport town of
Chalcidice, whence he is frequently called THE STAGIRITE.  At the
age of 17, Aristotle, who had then lost both father and mother,
repaired to Athens.  Plato considered him his best scholar, and
called him "the intellect of his school."  Aristotle spent twenty
years at Athens, during the last ten of which he established a
school of his own.  In 342 he accepted the invitation of Philip
of Macedon to undertake the instruction of his son Alexander.  In
335, after Alexander had ascended the throne, Aristotle quitted
Macedonia, to which he never returned.  He again took up his
abode at Athens, where the Athenians assigned him the gymnasium
called the Lyceum; and from his habit of delivering his lectures
whilst walking up and down in the shady walks of this place, his
school was called the PERIPATETIC.  In the morning he lectured
only to a select class of pupils, called ESOTERIC.  His afternoon
lectures were delivered to a wider circle, and were therefore
called EXOTERIC.  It was during the thirteen years in which he
presided over the Lyceum that he composed the greater part of his
works, and prosecuted his researches in natural history, in which
he was most liberally assisted by the munificence of Alexander.
The latter portion of Aristotle's life was unfortunate.  He
appears to have lost from some unknown cause the friendship of
Alexander; and, after the death of that monarch, the disturbances
which ensued in Greece proved unfavourable to his peace and
security.  Being threatened with a prosecution for impiety, he
escaped from Athens and retired to Chalcis; but he was condemned
to death in his absence, and deprived of all the rights and
honours which he had previously enjoyed.  He died at Chalcis in
322, in the 63rd year of his age.

Of all the philosophical systems of antiquity, that of Aristotle
was best adapted to the practical wants of mankind.  It was
founded on a close and accurate observation of human nature and
of the external world; but whilst it sought the practical and
useful, it did not neglect the beautiful and noble.  His works
consisted of treatises on natural, moral and political
philosophy, history, rhetoric, criticism, &c,; indeed there is
scarcely a branch of knowledge which his vast and comprehensive
genius did not embrace.

EPICURUS was born at Samos in 342, and settled at Athens at about
the age of 35.  Here he purchased a garden, where he established
his philosophical school.  He taught that pleasure is the highest
good; a tenet, however, which he explained and dignified by
showing that it was mental pleasure that he intended.  The ideas
of atheism and sensual degradation with which the name of
Epicurus has been so frequently coupled are founded on ignorance
of his real teaching.  But as he denied the immortality of the
soul, and the interference of the gods in human affairs,--though
he held their existence,--his tenets were very liable to be
abused by those who had not sufficient elevation of mind to love
virtue for its own sake.

ZENO was a native of Citium in the island of Cyprus, and settled
at Athens about B.C. 299.  Here he opened a school in the Poecile
Stoa, or painted porch, whence the name of his sect.  He
inculcated temperance and self-denial, and his practice was in
accordance with his precept.